Investigating the Relationship Between Density and Social sustainability in Informal Settlements, Case Study: Khezr District of Hamadan

Document Type : Original Article


Ph.D. Candidatet of Urbanism, Faculty of Architecture and Urban planning, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran.


Social sustainability has focus on the type of development that promotes social interaction and inclusion. It gives emphasis to inclusive community, social cohesions, quality of life, social equity and diversity. In fact, as one of the three domains of sustainability social sustainability plays a vital role in enhancing the community by the means of giving delivering equal opportunities, creating vibrant, diverse and inclusive environment and fulfill the social needs of the inhabitants.Informal settlement is not a physical problem but it is resulted from macrostructure factors on the national level. It is actually a type of settlement in urban space which marks a significant difference with other types of settlements.In this study, a considerable attention to relationship between density and social sustainability in most populated informal settlement of Hamedan, Khezr district. The variables of social sustainability were examined through 367 questionnaires in accordance with  the district population using SPSS (v.20) to analyze the data. The findings confirm that there are not significance relationship between all indicators of social sustainability and density.


  1. Alexander, E. R. (1993). Density measures: a review and analysis, Journal of Architectural and PlanningResearch, Vol. 10 pp. 181-202.
  2. Allen, Adriana. (2001). Urban Sustainability under Threat: The Restructuring of the Fishing Industry in Mar del Plata, Argentina, Development in Practice, vol. 11, Nos. 2&3, pp.152–173.
  3. Allen, Adriana; Pascale Hofmann and Hannah Griffiths. (2007). Report on Rural 3. – Urban Linkages for Poverty Reduction’. Elaborated for the State of the World’s Cities Report 2008: Creating Harmonious Cities, UCL Development Planning Unit, London.
  4. Bahadure, Sarika & Kotharkar, Rajashree. (2012). Social Sustainability and Mixed Landuse, Case Study of Neighborhoods in Nagpur, India. Bonfring International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Science, Vol. 2, No. 4.
  5. Forsyth, A. (2003). Measuring Density: Working Definition’s for Residential Density and building Intensity, Design Centre for American Urban Landscape, University of Minnesota.
  6. Handy, S. (1996). Methodologies for exploring the link between urban form and travel behaviour, Transportation Research – D, 1(2), pp.151-165.
  7. Hafeznia, M. (2010). Introduction to research methodsin the humanities: Tehran,Samt.
  8. Jenks,M., Burton, E. andWiliams, K.(eds). (1996). The Compact City: A Sustainable Urban Form, E & FN Spon, London.
  9. Jenks, M. and Dempsey, N. eds (2005). Future Forms and Design for Sustainable Cities, Architectural Press, Oxford.
  10. Llewelyn, Davies. (2000). Urban Design Compendium, English Partnerships and the Housing Corporation, London.
  11. Piran, P. (1987). Rapid urbanization and heterogeneous, living in hut in Tehran, Journal of Information of Political and Economic, 2:7.
  12. Sarafi, M. (2003). Overview of features in spontaneous settlements in search empowerment strategies, Proceedings of marginalization and informal settlements, University of Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences publications, Tehran, Iran.
  13. Sheikh, M. (2001). The process of formation and transformation of automotive settlements around metropolitan Tehran, Journal of Haft Shahr, 3:2.
  14. Williams, K., Burton, E. and Jenks, M. (Eds.). (2000) Achieving Sustainable Urban Form, E & FN Spon, London.


Online References

  1. Richmond. (2012).