The Relationship Between Place Attachment and the Satisfaction of Visitors in Cinema Multiplex (Case Study: Pardis Melat and koorosh, Tehran, Iran)

Document Type : Original Article


1 M.Arch., Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Qazvin branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

2 Senior Lecturer of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Abhar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abhar, Iran


The study tested whether place attachment enhances the place satisfaction among visitors of the multiplex cinema in Tehran-Iran. Structural equation modeling was employed on a sample of 220 visitors. Regression models were estimated to test the relationship of place attachment and place satisfactions of visitors. Place attachment has the four dimensions of place dependence, place identity, place affect, and place social bonding. Results show that as hypothesized, the place attachment has the positive effect on place satisfaction and these effects have been approved and an important theoretical contribution is that the important role of place attachment on place satisfaction of visitors of multiplex cinemas by approving four hypotheses of this study. The results of this study enhance the body of knowledge of place satisfaction and place attachment in cultural place. Practical applications of this study include marketing aimed at encouraging repeat visitation by increasing levels of satisfaction by increasing the place attachment in multiplex cinema. The article closes with implications of the study for academics and practitioners.


  1. Aad, G., Abbott, B., Abdallah, J., Abdelalim, A. A., Abdesselam, A., Abdinov, O., ... &Acharya, B. S. (2010). The ATLAS simulation infrastructure. The European Physical Journal C70(3), 823-874.
  2. Bassi, F. (2010). Experiential goods and customer satisfaction: An application to films. Quality Technology & Quantitative Management7(1), 51-67.
  3. Budruk, M., Thomas, H., & Tyrrell, T. (2009). Urban green spaces: A study of place attachment and environmental attitudes in India. Society and Natural Resources22(9), 824-839.
  4. Crompton, J. L., & Love, L. L. (1995). The predictive validity of alternative approaches to evaluating quality of a festival. Journal of travel research34(1), 11-24.
  5. DeVaus, D. (2013). Surveys in social research.Routledge.
  6. Davis, J. L., Le, B., & Coy, A. E. (2011). Building a model of commitment to the natural environment to predict ecological behavior and willingness to sacrifice. Journal of Environmental Psychology31(3), 257-265
  7. Devine-Wright, P., & Clayton, S. (2010). Introduction to the special issue: Place, identity and environmental behaviour.
  8. De Young, R. (2000). New ways to promote proenvironmental behavior: Expanding and evaluating motives for environmentally responsible behavior. Journal of social issues56(3), 509-526.
  9. F. Hair Jr, J., Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L., & G. Kuppelwieser, V. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) An emerging tool in business research. European Business Review26(2), 106-121.
  10. Fornell, C., &Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of marketing research, 382-388.
  11. Halpenny, E. A. (2010). Pro-environmental behaviours and park visitors: The effect of place attachment. Journal of Environmental Psychology30(4), 409-421.
  12. Hartig, T., Böök, A., Garvill, J., Olsson, T., &Gärling, T. (1996). Environmental influences on psychological restoration. Scandinavian journal of psychology37(4), 378-393.
  13. Hidalgo, M. C., & Hernandez, B. (2001). Place attachment: Conceptual and empirical questions. Journal of environmental psychology21(3), 273-281.
  14. Hwang, S. N., Lee, C., & Chen, H. J. (2005). The relationship among tourists’ involvement, place attachment and interpretation satisfaction in Taiwan’s national parks. Tourism Management26(2), 143-156.
  15. Kahneman, D., &Knetsch, J. L. (1992). Valuing public goods: the purchase of moral satisfaction. Journal of environmental economics and management22(1), 57-70.
  16. Kelley, M. L., Palcic, J. L., Vigna, J. F., Wang, J., Spell, A. W., Pellegrin, A., ... & Ruggiero, K. J. (2010). The effects of parenting behavior on children's mental health after Hurricane Katrina: Preliminary findings.
  17. Klinger, B. (2006). Beyond the multiplex: Cinema, new technologies, and the home. Univ of California Press.
  18. Lai, P. H., Hsu, Y. C., & Nepal, S. K. (2013). Representing the landscape of Yushan national park. Annals of Tourism Research43, 37-57.
  19. Lee, J., Kyle, G., & Scott, D. (2012). The mediating effect of place attachment on the relationship between festival satisfaction and loyalty to the festival hosting destination. Journal of Travel Research51(6), 754-76
  20. Loureiro, S. M. C. (2014). The role of the rural tourism experience economy in place attachment and behavioral intentions. International Journal of Hospitality Management40, 1-9.
  21. López-Mosquera, N., & Sánchez, M. (2011). Emotional and satisfaction benefits to visitors as explanatory factors in the monetary valuation of environmental goods.An application to periurban green spaces. Land Use Policy28(1), 151-166.
  22. López-Mosquera, N., & Sánchez, M. (2012). Theory of Planned Behavior and the Value-Belief-Norm Theory explaining willingness to pay for a suburban park. Journal of environmental management113, 251-262.
  23. Lozano, R., Naghavi, M., Foreman, K., Lim, S., Shibuya, K., Aboyans, V., ... &AlMazroa, M. A. (2013). Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The Lancet380(9859), 2095-2128.
  24. McDonald, R. P., & Ho, M. H. R. (2002). Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses. Psychological methods7(1), 64.
  25. Moore, S. A., Rodger, K., &Taplin, R. (2015). Moving beyond visitor satisfaction to loyalty in nature-based tourism: a review and research agenda. Current Issues in Tourism18(7), 667-683.
  26. Mowatt, R. A., & Chancellor, C. H. (2011). Visiting death and life: Dark tourism and slave castles. Annals of Tourism Research38(4), 1410-1434.
  27. Naficy, H. (2009). From accented cinema to multiplex cinema. Convergence Media History, 1.
  28. Nusair, K., &Hua, N. (2010). Comparative assessment of structural equation modeling and multiple regression research methodologies: E-commerce context. Tourism Management31(3), 314-324.
  29. Nunkoo, R., &Ramkissoon, H. (2012). Structural equation modelling and regression analysis in tourism research. Current Issues in Tourism15(8), 777-802.
  30. Pelletier, L. G., Tuson, K. M., Green‐Demers, I., Noels, K., & Beaton, A. M. (1998). Why are you doing things for the environment? The motivation toward the environment scale (mtes) 1. Journal of applied social psychology28(5), 437-468.
  31. Prayag, G., Hosany, S., &Odeh, K. (2013). The role of tourists' emotional experiences and satisfaction in understanding behavioral intentions. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management2(2), 118-127.
  32. Prayag, G., & Ryan, C. (2012). Antecedents of tourists’ loyalty to Mauritius: The role and influence of destination image, place attachment, personal involvement, and satisfaction. Journal of Travel Research51(3), 342-356.
  33. Prayag, G. (2012). Paradise for who? Segmenting visitors' satisfaction with cognitive image and predicting behavioural loyalty. International Journal of Tourism Research14(1), 1-15.
  34. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior research methods40(3), 879-891.
  35. Preacher, K. J., Rucker, D. D., & Hayes, A. F. (2007). Addressing moderated mediation hypotheses: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate behavioral research42(1), 185-227.
  36. Proshansky, H. M. (1978). The city and self-identity. Environment and behavior10(2), 147-169.
  37. Ramkissoon, H., &Mavondo, F. T. (2015). The satisfaction–place attachment relationship: Potential mediators and moderators. Journal of Business Research68(12), 2593-2602.
  38. Ramkissoon, H., Smith, L. D. G., & Kneebone, S. (2014). Visitor satisfaction and place attachment in national parks. Tourism Analysis19(3), 287-300.
  39. Ramkissoon, H., Smith, L. D. G., &Weiler, B. (2013). Testing the dimensionality of place attachment and its relationships with place satisfaction and pro-environmental behaviours: A structural equation modelling approach. Tourism management36, 552-566.
  40. Reed, M., Evely, A. C., Cundill, G., Fazey, I. R. A., Glass, J., Laing, A., ... & Stringer, L. (2010). What is social learning?. Ecology and Society.
  41. Ross, C. T., Bonaiuto, M., &Breakwell, G. M. (2003). Identity theories and environmental psychology (pp. 203-234).Ashgate.
  42. Scannell, L., & Gifford, R. (2016). Place attachment enhances psychological need satisfaction. Environment and Behavior, 0013916516637648.
  43. Scannell, L., & Gifford, R. (2010). Defining place attachment: A tripartite organizing framework. Journal of environmental psychology30(1), 1-10.
  44. Stedman, R. C. (2002). Toward a social psychology of place: Predicting behavior from place-based cognitions, attitude, and identity. Environment and behavior34(5), 561-581.
  45. Stokols, D., & Shumaker, S. A. (1981). People in places: A transactional view of settings. Cognition, social behavior, and the environment, 441-488.
  46. Snider, A., Hill, J., Luo, S., Buerger, B., &Herstine, J. (2011). Implications for place attachment in coastal reserve management. Ocean & coastal management54(8), 612-620.
  47. Song, H., van der Veen, R., Li, G., & Chen, J. L. (2012). The Hong Kong tourist satisfaction index. Annals of Tourism Research39(1), 459-479.
  48. Taplin, R. H. (2013). The influence of competition on visitor satisfaction and loyalty. Tourism Management36, 238-246.
  49. Theodorakis, N. D., Alexandris, K., Tsigilis, N., &Karvounis, S. (2013). Predicting spectators’ behavioural intentions in professional football: The role of satisfaction and service quality. Sport management review16(1), 85-96
  50. Tonge, J., Moore, S. A., &Taplin, R. (2011). Visitor satisfaction analysis as a tool for park managers: A review and case study. Annals of Leisure Research14(4), 289-303.
  51. Tonge, J., & Moore, S. A. (2007). Importance-satisfaction analysis for marine-park hinterlands: A Western Australian case study. Tourism Management28(3), 768-776.
  52. Tonge, J., Valesini, F. J., Moore, S. A., Beckley, L. E., & Ryan, M. M. (2013). The relation between place attachment and management preferences of visitors at remote coastal campsites in Western Australia. Visitor Studies16(1), 39-58.
  53. Tuan, Y. F. (1977). Space and place: The perspective of experience. U of Minnesota Press.
  54. Tudoran, A. A., Olsen, S. O., &Dopico, D. C. (2012). Satisfaction strength and intention to purchase a new product. Journal of Consumer Behaviour11(5), 391-405.
  55. Ulrich, R. S. (1979). Visual landscapes and psychological well‐being. Landscape research4(1), 17-23.
  56. Veasna, S., Wu, W. Y., & Huang, C. H. (2013). The impact of destination source credibility on destination satisfaction: The mediating effects of destination attachment and destination image. Tourism Management36, 511-526.
  57. Wiles, J. L., Allen, R. E., Palmer, A. J., Hayman, K. J., Keeling, S., &Kerse, N. (2009). Older people and their social spaces: A study of well-being and attachment to place in Aotearoa New Zealand. Social Science & Medicine68(4), 664-671.
  58. Williams, D. R., Patterson, M. E., Roggenbuck, J. W., & Watson, A. E. (1992). Beyond the commodity metaphor: Examining emotional and symbolic attachment to place. Leisure sciences14(1), 29-46.
  59. Williams, P., &Soutar, G. N. (2009). Value, satisfaction and behavioral intentions in an adventure tourism context. Annals of Tourism Research36(3), 413-438.
  60. Yuksel, A., Yuksel, F., &Bilim, Y. (2010). Destination attachment: Effects on customer satisfaction and cognitive, affective and conative loyalty. Tourism management31(2), 274-284.
  61. Žabkar, V., Brenčič, M. M., &Dmitrović, T. (2010). Modelling perceived quality, visitor satisfaction and behavioural intentions at the destination level. Tourism management31(4), 537-546.
  62. Zboja, J. J., & Voorhees, C. M. (2006). The impact of brand trust and satisfaction on retailer repurchase intentions. Journal of Services Marketing20(6), 381-390.