Landscape information modeling with the approach of controlling urban metabolism

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

Department of landscape architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Regarding the importance of the landscape as part of the nature and a dynamic and complex ecosystem, urban metabolism has been used in this research as a tool to evaluate and control ecosystem services. Firstly, the indicators of the urban landscape and metabolism were reviewed in the authentic books and articles and then the factors affecting the control of metabolism in the urban landscape were explained. Moreover, since landscape has a multifaceted approach, that required multidimensional planning and management; in order to create a conceptual model that fully would express the relationship between urban landscape metabolism and landscape information modeling, we needed to use a management strategy. In order to meet this challenge, Thompson and Martin management strategy models were used because both aspects of landscape information modeling and urban metabolism control on sustainability path were examined simultaneously in this method; and finally, public preference was measured in order to achieve sustainability and establish a perfect balance at the end of the process.

Keywords


  1. Achten H. & Zajíčková,V,(2013), Landscape Information Modeling :Plants as the components for information modelling. Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.volume2
  2. Ahmad, A. M. & Aliya, A. A. (2012), The Need for Landscape Information Modelling (LIM) in Landscape Architecture. DLA
  3. Alexander C., (1964) Notes on the Synthesis of Form. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
  4. Al-Kodmany K (1999) Using visualization techniques for enhancing public participation in planning and design: process, implementation, and evaluation. Landsc Urban Plan 45:37–45
  5. Aminzadeh,B.( 2015). Values in urban landscape design: sustainability, beauty and identity. University of Tehran, Tehran.
  6. Aranda, M. G., Chevez, A., Crawford, J. R., Wakefield, T., Froese, R., Frazer, J. H., Nielsen, D. & Gard, S. (2008), Business Drivers for Building Information Modelling  Brisbane, Australia, Cooperative Research Centre – Construction Innovation.
  7. Aranda, M. G., Crawford, J. R., Chevez, A. & Froese, T. (2009), Building Information Modelling Demystified: Does it Make Business Sense to Adopt BIM? In: International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 2 (3), 419-434. The Need for Landscape Information Modelling (LIM) in Landscape Architecture 539
  8. -Autodesk (2003), Building Information Modelling in Practice: Autodesk Building Solutions (White Paper http://images.autodesk.com/emea_s_main/files/bim_in_practice.pdf accessed on: 12th July, 2010.
  9. Azhar, S. (2011). Building Information Modeling (BIM): Trends, Benefits, Risks, and Challenges for the AEC Industry. Leadership and Management in Engineering, 11(3), 241–252. 
  10. Bell, S., Montarzino, A. & Travlou, P. (2007), Mapping Research Priorities for Green and Public Urban Space in the Uk. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 6, 103-115
  11. Bell,S. (2007). Landscape, pattern, perception, process. Translated by Behnaz Aminzadeh, University of Tehran, Tehran.
  12. Bentley.S (2011), About BIM http://www.bentley.com/en-GB/Solutions/Buildings/About+BIM.htm (accessed on: 13th July, 2011).
  13. Bernstein, P. G. & Pittman, J. H. (2005), Barriers to the Adoption of Building Information Modelling in the Building Industry. Autodesk Building Solutions Whitepaper, CA, Autodesk Inc.
  14. Breuste J, Niemela J, Snep RPH (2008) Applying landscape ecological principles in urban environments. Landscape Ecol 23:1139–1142
  15. Carmona. Matthew, Heath. Tim, Oc. Taner, Tiesdell. Steve (2009),Public Places, Urban Spaces, (trans. Fariba -Gharayi, Mahshid Shokouhi, Zahra Ahari, Esmaeil Salehi(, Art University of Tehran Press. Tehran. [in Persian]
  16. Carr, S., Francis, M., Rivlin, L.G., Stone, A.M. (1992), Public Space, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  17. Chen, H., Jia, B., & Lau, S. S. Y. (2008). Sus tainable urban form for Chinese compact cities: Challenges of a rapid urbanized economy. Habitat international. 32 (1). 28-40
  18. Costanza, R.; D’Arge, R.; DeGroot, R.; Farber, S.; Grasso, M.; Hannon, B.; Limburg, K.; Naeem, S.; O’Neill, R.; Paruelo, J.; Raskin, R.; Sutton, P. & M. van den Belt.( 1997). The Value of the World’s Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital. Nature 387: 253–260
  19. Crow T. Brown T. Young R de(2006).the riverside and Berwyn experience: contrasts in landscape structure, perceptions of the urban landscape, and their effects on people landscape and urban planning ,vol75,p:282.
  20. Daily, G.C. (1997). Introduction: What are Ecosystem Services? In: Daily, G.C. (Ed.) Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Island Press, Washington, D.C., 1-10.
  21. De Groot R (1992) Functions of nature: evaluation of nature in environmental planning, management and decision making. Wolters-Noordhoff, Groningen
  22. De Groot R (2006) Function-analysis and valuation as a tool to assess land use conflicts in planning for sustainable, multifunctional landscapes. Landsc Urban Plan 75:175–186
  23. De Groot, R.S.; Wilson, M.A. & Boumans, R.M. (2002). A typology for the classification, description and valuation of ecosystem functions, goods and services. Ecological economics, 41(3), pp.393-408.
  24. Deveikienė, V. (2018). Methodological guidelines for optimizing the interaction between landscape architecture and urban planning. Sci. J. Latv. Univ. Life Sci. Technol. Landsc. Archit. Art , 12, 7–21
  25. Eirani Behbahani, H., Gohari, A., Assar, Z. (2017). Perceptual Analysis of Fast and Irregular Transformations in Historical Urban Landscape (Case Study: Historical-Religious City of Ray and Shemiran District-Tehran). Space Ontology International Journal, 6(1), 1-8.
  26. Eastman, C. M., Eastman, C., Teicholz, P., Sacks, R. & Liston, K. (2011), BIM Handbook: A Guide to Building Information Modelling for Owners, Managers, Designers, En- gineers and Contractors. Canada. John Wiley and Sons.
  27. Farahnaki, M., Barakpur, N. (2019). Land Use Planning for Urban River Margins Based on the Green City Approach (Case study: Abshooran River of Kermanshah). Space Ontology International Journal, 8(1), 15-33.
  28. Farina A., (2010). Ecology, Cognition and Landscape. Linking Natural and Social Systems. Springer, New York.
  29. Fisher, B. & Turner, K. (2008). Ecosystem services: Classification for valuation. Biological Conservation 141: 1167-1169.
  30. Flohr, T. (2011), A Landscape Architect's Review of Building Information Modelling Technology. In: Landscape Journal, 30 (1), 169-170.
  31. Fürst, C., Luque, S., Geneletti, D., (2017). Nexus thinking–how ecosystem services can contribute to enhancing the cross-scale and cross-sectoral coherence between land use, spatial planning and policy-making. Int. J. Biodivers. Sci. Ecosyst. Serv. Manag. 13, 412–421. https://doi.org/10.1080/21513732.2017.1396257. Germain, R., 2012. Acceptabilité sociale de l'aménagement forestier écosystémique: le point de vue des Algonquins de Pikogan. [MSc thesis]. Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda
  32. Goldman, M. (2011), Landscape Information Modeling. http://www.di.net/articles/archive/ landscape_information_modeling/ (accessed on: 4th April, 2012).
  33. Golkar,K.(2008). The visual environment of the city, the evolution from a decorative approach to a sustainable approach. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 5 (4): 113-95.
  34. Grimm, N.B.; Faeth, S.H.; Golubiewski, N.E.; Redman, C.L.; Wu, J.; Bai, X.; Briggs, J.M. (2008) Global change and the ecology of cities. Science, 319, 756–760.
  35. Grose, M.; Frisby, M. Mixing ecological science into landscape architecture. Front. Ecol. Environ. 2019, 17, 296–297.
  36. Haines-Young, R., Potschin, M.(2006) The links between biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being. Ch 7. In: Raffaelli, D., Frid, C. (Eds.), Ecosystem Ecology: A New Synthesis. BES Ecological Reviews Series, CUP, Cambridge, in press.
  37. Hardin, B. (2009), BIM and Construction Management Proven Tools, Methods, and Workflows. Indiana, Wiley Publishing.
  38. Hayek, U. W., Melsom, J., Neuenschwander, N., Girot, C. & Grêt-Regamey, A. (2011), Interdisciplinary studio for teaching 3D landscape visualization. Lessons from the LVML.
  39. Huang, S. (1998). Urban ecosystems, energrtic hierarchies, and ecological economics of Taipei, metropolis Jornal of Environmetal Management, 52: 39-51
  40. ICSU, UNESCO, UNU, (2008). Ecosystem Change and Human Wellbeing. Research and Monitoring. Report, ICSU, UNESCO and UNU, Paris.
  41. Ingram DL (2013) Life Cycle Assessment to study the carbon footprint of system components for colorado blue spruce field production and use. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 138:3–11
  42. Jenks, M., & Jones, C. (Eds.). (2009). Dimensions of the sus tainable city. (Vol. 2). Springer Science & Business Media. 39. Kropf, Karl. (1996). Urban tissue and the character of towns. Urban Design International journal. 1 (3). 247-263.
  43. Kacprzyk ,Z . Kępa ,T (2014), Building Information Modelling – 4D Modelling Technology on the Example of the Reconstruction Stairwell, Procedia Engineering 91. December.
  44. Kamyab Teimouri, M. (2018). Ecological Design of Urban Landscape. Space Ontology International Journal, 7(2), 35-46.
  45. Kaplan, R, Kaplan, S & Ryan (1989), With People in Min: Design and Management of Everyday Nature, Islan press, Washington DC.
  46. Kaplan, S,)1995(. The restorative benefits of nature: Toward an integrative framework, Journal of Environmental Psychology Volume 15, Issue 3, September 1995, Pages 169-182
  47. Kennedy, C., Pincetl, S., Bunje, P. (2011). The study of urban metabolism and its applicaions to urban planning and design. Environmental Pollution 159 1965-1973
  48. Kennedy, C.A., (2007). Applying industrial ecology to design a sustainable built environment: the Toronto Port Lands challenge, In: Engineering Sustainability Conference, Pittsburgh, USA, April 15e18.
  49. Kennedy, C.A., Cuddihy, J., Engel Yan, J., (2007). The changing metabolism of cities. Journal of Industrial Ecology 2007 (11), 43e59.
  50. Krasny ME, Tidball KG (2012) Civic ecology: a pathway for Earth Stewardship in cities. Front Ecol Environ 10:267–273
  51. Langley, W.N.; Corry, R.C.; Brown, R.D.(2018) Core Knowledge Domains of Landscape Architecture. Landsc. J. , 37, 9–21.
  52. Lovell ST (2010) Multifunctional urban agriculture for sustainable land use planning. Sustainability 2:2499– 2522
  53. Maclaren, V. (1996). Developing Indicators of Urban Sustainability: A Focus on the Canadian Experience. Intergovernmental Committee on Urban and Regional Research, ICURR Press, Toronto, ON.
  54. Makhzoumi ,J and Gloria P. (2005). Ecological landscape design and planning, published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library
  55. McCall MK, Minang PA (2005) Assessing participatory GIS for community-based natural resource management: claiming community forests in Cameroon. Geogr J 171:340–356
  56. McDonald, G. W. Patterson, M.G. (2007). Bridging the divide in urban sustainability: from human exemptionalism to the new ecological paradigm. J Urban Ecosyst. 10(2007) 169–92
  57. MEA [Millennium Ecosystem Assessment]. 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC.
  58. Montgomery, J. (1998), Making City: »Urbanity, Vitality and Urban Design«, Journal of Urban Design, Number3.
  59. Mukomo, S. (1996). On sustainable urban development in sub_Saharan Africa, Cities. 13 (40). pp. 265-271.
  60. Nassauer JI, Opdam P (2008) Design in science: extending the landscape ecology paradigm. Landscape Ecol 23:633–644
  61. Newman, P, & Kenworthy, J. (1999). Sustainability and Cities. Overcoming Automobile Dependence. Washington D. C: Island Press.
  62. Nowak DJ, Crane DE, Stevens JC, Hoehn RE, Walton JT, Bond J (2008) A ground-based method of assessing urban forest structure and ecosystem services. Arboric Urban For 34:347–358
  63. Otte A, Simmering D, Wolters V (2007) Biodiversity at the landscape level: recent concepts and perspectives for multifunctional land use. Landscape Ecol 22:639–642
  64. Pickett, S.T.A.; Cadenasso, M.L.; Grove, J.M.; Nilon, C.H.; Pouyat, R.V.; Zipperer, W.C.( 2001); Costanza, R. Urban Ecological Systems: Linking Terrestrial Ecological, Physical, and Socioeconomic Components of Metropolitan Areas. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 32, 127–157.
  65. Pope, J. (2004), Conceptualizing sustainability assessment, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 24, PP. 595 – 616
  66. Sevenant, M. & Antrop, M. (2009). Cognitive Attributes and Aesthetic Preferences in Assessment and Differentiation of Landscapes.Environmental Management, 90: 2889-2899.
  67. Sheppard,L.(2017),Ecology V: River of Concrete: The Seeding of a Fifth Ecology- Journal of Architectural Education.volume71 Issue 2.pp268-269
  68. Smith KA, Dobbie KE, Thorman R, Watson CJ, Chadwick DR, Yamulki S, Ball BC (2012) The effect of N fertilizer forms on nitrous oxide emissions from UK arable land and grassland. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 93:127–149
  69. Swaffield S (2013) Empowering landscape ecology - connecting science to governance through design values. Landscape Ecol 28(6):1193–1201
  70. Taqvaee,s.H. (2012). Landscape architecture, an introduction to definitions and theoretical foundations. Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran.
  71. Tarr, J. A. (2002). The metabolism of the industrial city: the case of Pittsburgh. J Urban Hist. 28(2002) 511–45.
  72. Tidball KG, Krasny ME (2009) From risk to resilience: what role for community greening and civic ecology in cities? Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen
  73. Tukker, A., (2000), Life cycle assessment as a tool in environmental impact assessment, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 20, PP.435-456.
  74. Vandermass, Around A(2008).strategy Implementation in a small  Island community: An integration Framework.Ph.D. Thesis. Management/Erasmus school of economics Erasmus University.
  75. Wachsmuth, D. (2012). Three Ecologies: Urban Metabolism and the Society-Nature Opposition. The Sociological Quarterly, 53(4), 506–523. 
  76. Wallace, K.J. (2007). Classification of ecosystem services: problems and solutions. Biological Conservation 139: 235-246.
  77. Westman, W.E. (1997). How much are Nature's services worth? Science, 197, 960-64.
  78. Weygant, R S.(2011). BIM Content Development: Standards, Strategies, and Best Practices.april2011.p464
  79. Wu J (2013) Landscape sustainability science: ecosystem services and human well-being in changing landscapes. Landscape Ecol 28(6):999–1023
  80. Wu JG (2010) Urban sustainability: an inevitable goal of landscape research. Landscape Ecol 25:1–4
  81. Yue, B.-R.; Shao, S.-L. (2010). The evolution and trends of analytical methods for landscape planning and design. J. Xi’an Univ. Archit. Technol. Nat. Sci. Ed.42, 690–695