Determining the Effective Parameters in Dynamic Daylighting Case study: A Muti-Purpose Living Space in Tehran

Document Type : Original Article


1 Faculty of Art and Architecture, Department of Architecture, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran.

3 Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of Art, Tehran, Iran


Space geometry design is the first stage of proper daylight design. The basic ideas of form and space design should provide the best conditions for daylight. This article investigates the effect of living room proportions on the amount of interior lighting received in Tehran's residential buildings. In the first step, the information from literature related to daylight was studied. In the second step, a checklist has been compiled to examine the space based on daylight from the classification and summarization of the information obtained from the research background. Based on this theoretical framework, one of the houses in Tehran with a common plan was selected as a case study according to daylight design indexes to achieve the goal. In the third step, the problem was determined, and then the solution was provided by simulating using applied models and software. The modeling process and changing the geometric variables were performed parametrically with Grasshopper software, and daylight simulation was performed by Radiance and Daysim software. Thus, the intensity of annual illumination is examined in the current situation to optimize the illumination conditions; the window of this space is optimized by maintaining the optimum ratio of this window, the optimum space proportions obtained. The survey has shown that in optimal condition, the ratio of length to depth in the living room is 1.54 to 1.91, and the WFR ratio is 9% to 22%. Thus with the values obtained, the living room will have the best thermal and lighting performance during the year. In addition, with the optimal percentage of the window to the floor, appropriate shading device, and optimal dimensions of the room, this space can provide suitable light for various daily activities in a multi-purpose living space.


  1. Acosta, I., Ángel Campano, M., Francisco Molina, J. (2016) ‘Window design in architecture: Analysis of energy savings for lighting and visual comfort in residential spaces’, Instituto Universitario de Arquitectura y Ciencias de la Construcción, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain 168: 493-506.
  2. Ahadi, A., Masoudinejad, M., Piriaei, A. (2016) 'Proper design of windows to achieve the right amount of daylight in apartment houses in Tehran', Hoviat shahr Journal 10 (25): 41-50.
  3. Dechara, J. (2010) Comprehensive Interior Architecture Standards: Shahr-e Abbas Publications, Third Edition, Tehran.
  4. Esmailian, M., Moghaddasi Sinjani, M., Yari Boroujeni, N. (2015) 'Investigating the Effect of Orientation on Visual Comfort in Residential Buildings (Case Study: Tehran)'. First Annual Conference on Architectural, Urban Development and Urban Management
  5. Fayaz, R. (2013) 'Optimal Surface of Residential Buildings in Ardebil and Tehran', Journal of Architecture and Urban Planning  5(10): 105-119.
  6. Ghiabakloo, Z. (2013) 'Basics of building physics 5 daylight', Tehran: Jihad Daneshgahi Amirkabir Industrial Branch.
  7. Hanachi, P. (2014) 'The Magic of Light in Traditional Iranian Architecture (Evaluation of Natural Light Utilization in Four Climates of Iran)'. First International Congress of New Horizons in Architecture and Urban Development
  8. Heydari, Sh. (2012) Architecture and Lighting. Tehran: University of Tehran.
  9. Huang, Y., Niu, J., Chung, T. (2014) 'Comprehensive analysis on the thermal and daylighting performance of glazing and shading designs on office building envelope in cooling-dominant climates', Applied energy – Elsevier 134(C): 215-228.
  10. Ihm, P., Park, L., Krarti, M., Seo, D. (2012) 'Impact of window selection on residential buildings', Energy Performance in South Korea, Energy Policy – Elsevier 44(C): 1-9.
  11. Lee, JW., Jung, HJ., Park, JY., Lee, JB., Yoon, Y. (2013) 'Optimization of building window system in Asian regions by analyzing solar heat gain and daylighting elements', Renewable energy – Elsevier 50: 522-531.
  12. Matusiak, B. (2006) 'The impact of window form on the room's size impression—full-scale studies', Architectural Science Review- Taylor & Francis 49(1): 43-51.
  13. Ministry of Housing and Urban Development. (2017). 'Building and Housing Research Center. National Building Regulations of Iran, Chapter Four, General Building Requirements', Third Edition. Bureau of National Building Regulations.
  14. Ministry of Housing and Urban Development. (2015). 'Building and Housing Research Center. Iranian National Building Regulations, Nineteenth, Energy Saving', Fourth Edition. Bureau of National Building Regulations.
  16. Miri, M., Kompani, S. (2013) 'Assessing Daylight Access Requirements in Iranian National Building Code (Case Study in Qazvin)', Armanshahr Architecture, Urban Design & Urban Planning 7(1): 109-121.       
  17. Nabil, A., Mardaljevic, J. (2005) 'Useful Daylight Factors', Energy and Buildings 38(1): 41-59.
  18. Namdari, M., Habibi, A., Baghi, H. (2013) Lighting in Interior Architecture. Tehran: Jihad-e-Academic Press Organization
  19. Nedhal, Al., Fairuz Syed, F., Abdullah Maulin, A. (2016) 'Relationship between Window-to-Floor Area Ratio and Single-Point Daylight Factor in Varied Residential Rooms in Malaysia', Indian Journal of Science and Technology 9(33): 1-8.
  20. Safaii, B., Khalaji Asadi, M., Taghizadeh, H., Jilavi, A., Taleghani, G., Danesh, M. (2005) 'Estimating Solar Energy Potential in Iran and Related Radiation', Atlas.J.NuclearSci.Tech 33: 27-44.
  21. Shahparnia, M., Nikghadam, N. (2019) 'Ergonomic Natural-Solar Lighting Systems in Museum of Artworks', Armanshahr Architecture & Urban Development 12(29): 65-80.
  22. Syed Fadzil, Sh., Abdullah, A., Wan Harun, Maulin, W. (2013) 'The Impact of Varied Orientation and Wall Window Ratio (WWR) To Daylight Distribution in Residental Rooms', International Symposium in Developing Economies: Commonalities Among, Diversities, 107: 478-485.                                     
  23. Tahbaz, M., Jalilian, Sh., Mousavi, F., Kazemzadeh, M. (2014) 'Natural Lighting in Traditional Houses of Kashan: A Case Study of Ameri Houses', Journal of Iranian Architecture Studies 2(4): 87-108.
  24. Tahbaz, M., Jalilian, Sh., Mousavi, F., Kazemzadeh, M. (2015) 'The Influence of Architectural Design on Natural Light Play in Iranian Traditional Houses', Journal of Armanshahr Architecture and Urban Planning 15(8): 71- 81.