The Right to the City: Developing a Framework to Analyze Environmental Justice

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Faculty of Art and Architecture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran

2 Department of Urban Design, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.

Abstract

The unprecedented increase in urban population and the emergence of new issues in the lives of citizens have led to new concepts, such as “right to the city” in the urban planning literature. The answer to many failures of plans and programs in various fields, including environmental justice, can be found in the light of this concept. This paper has focused on the issue of environmental justice through a comprehensive view of the social and economic dimensions of the lives of different groups of city dwellers, and “the right to the city” has been identified as the most appropriate context for this purpose. This descriptive-analytical paper has used documentary studies and a review of the theoretical literature associated with the right to the city and environmental justice to extract the conceptual model indicating the explanation of components and their relationships, using the content analysis model. Finally, the proposed model showed that the establishment of environmental justice in cities requires the realization of the components of the right to the city.

Keywords


  1. Agyeman, J. (2008). Toward a ‘just’sustainability?. Continuum, 22(6),pp. 751-756.
  2. Agyeman, J. (2013). Introducing just sustainabilities: Policy, planning, and practice. Zed Books Ltd..
  3. Agyeman, J. (2014). Global environmental justice or Le droit au monde. Geoforum, 54, pp.236-238.
  4. Agyeman, J., Bullard, R. D., & Evans, B. (Eds.). (2003). Just sustainabilities: Development in an unequal world. MIT press.
  5. Altman, I., & Low, S. M. (1992). Place attachment. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  6. Amin, A., & Thrift, N. (2002). Cities: reimagining the urban. Polity Press.
  7. Anderton, D. L., Anderson, A. B., Oakes, J. M., & Fraser, M. R. (1994). Environmental equity: the demographics of dumping. Demography, 31(2), pp.229-248.
  8. Barron, M. (2017). Remediating a sense of place: memory and environmental justice in Anniston, Alabama. southeastern geographer, 57(1), pp. 62-79.
  9. Been, V. (1995). Analyzing Evidnece of Environmental Justice. J. Land Use & Envtl. L., pp. 11, 1.
  10. Bengtsson, M. (2016). How to plan and perform a qualitative study using content analysis. NursingPlus Open, 2, pp.8-14.
  11. Bezdek, R., Ferris, D., Kadri, J., Wolcott, R., Drayton, W., Alley, K., ... & Larkin, F. (1995). Environmental justice: Issues, policies, and solutions. Island Press.
  12. Boone, C. G., Buckley, G. L., Grove, J. M., & Sister, C. (2009). Parks and people: An environmental justice inquiry in Baltimore, Maryland. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 99(4), pp.767-787.
  13. Bredin, Y. K., Lescureux, N., & Linnell, J. D. (2018). Local perceptions of jaguar conservation and environmental justice in Goiás, Matto Grosso and Roraima states (Brazil). Global Ecology and Conservation, 13, e00369.
  14. Brown, A., & Kristiansen, A. (2009). Urban Policies and the Right to the City: Rights. Responsibilities and Citizanship, UN-Habitat-Policy Paper Series on Management of Social Transformations.
  15. Brulle, R. J., & Pellow, D. N. (2006). Environmental justice: human health and environmental inequalities. Annu. Rev. Public Health, 27, pp.103-124.
  16. Bryant, B. (Ed.).  (1995). Environmental justice:Issues, policies, and solutions. Washington, DC: Island Press.
  17. Bulkeley, H., Edwards, G. A., & Fuller, S. (2014). Contesting climate justice in the city: Examining politics and practice in urban climate change experiments. Global Environmental Change, 25, pp.31-40.
  18. Bullard, R. (1990). Dumping in dixie. Boulder, CO: Westview.
  19. Bullard, R. D. (1983). Solid waste sites and the black Houston community. Sociological inquiry, 53(2‐3), pp.273-288.
  20. Bullard, R. D. (2005). Environmental justice in the twenty-first century. The quest for environmental justice: Human rights and the politics of pollution, 19, pp.32-33.
  21. Bullard, R. D., Warren, R. C., & Johnson, G. S. (2005). The quest for environmental justice. Human Rights and the politics of pollution.
  22. Burger, J. (2019). A framework for increasing sustainability and reducing risk to ecological resources through integration of remediation planning and implementation. Environmental research, 172, pp.586-595.
  23. Burger, J., Gochfeld, M., Bunn, A., Downs, J., Jeitner, C., Pittfield, T., & Salisbury, J. (2016). Functional remediation components: a conceptual method of evaluating the effects of remediation on risks to ecological receptors. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 79(21), pp.957-968.
  24. Čapek, S. M. (1993). The “environmental justice” frame: A conceptual discussion and an application. Social problems, 40(1), pp.5-24.
  25. Cappuyns, V. (2016). Inclusion of social indicators in decision support tools for the selection of sustainable site remediation options. Journal of Environmental Management, 184, pp.45-56.
  26. Capron, G. (2002, May). Accessibility for ‘modern urban public spaces’ in Latin-American cities: Physical appearances and socio-spatial pertenencies. In a conference on Rights to the city, Rome, May.
  27. Certomà, C., & Martellozzo, F. (2019). Cultivating urban justice? A spatial exploration of urban gardening crossing spatial and environmental injustice conditions. Applied Geography, 106, pp.60-70.
  28. Chan, K. M., Satterfield, T., & Goldstein, J. (2012). Rethinking ecosystem services to better address and navigate cultural values. Ecological economics, 74, pp.8-18.
  29. Chiesura, A. (2004). The role of urban parks for the sustainable city. Landscape and urban planning, 68(1), pp.129-138.
  30. Collins, T. W., Grineski, S. E., & Chakraborty, J. (2018). Environmental injustice and flood risk: a conceptual model and case comparison of metropolitan Miami and Houston, USA. Regional environmental change, 18(2), pp.311-323.
  31. Collins, T. W., Grineski, S. E., & Morales, D. X. (2017). Environmental injustice and sexual minority health disparities: a national study of inequitable health risks from air pollution among same-sex partners. Social Science & Medicine, 191, pp.38-47.
  32. Collins, T. W., Grineski, S. E., & Morales, D. X. (2017). Environmental injustice and sexual minority health disparities: a national study of inequitable health risks from air pollution among same-sex partners. Social Science & Medicine, 191, pp.38-47.
  33. Collins, T. W., Grineski, S. E., Chakraborty, J., & Flores, A. B. (2019). Environmental injustice and Hurricane Harvey: A household-level study of socially disparate flood exposures in Greater Houston, Texas, USA. Environmental research, 179, 108772.
  34. Cook, I. R., & Swyngedouw, E. (2012). Cities, social cohesion and the environment: towards a future research agenda. Urban Studies, 49(9), pp.1959-1979.
  35. Costanza, R., d'Arge, R., De Groot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., ... & Raskin, R. G. (1998). The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital. Ecological economics, 25(1), pp.3-15.
  36. Costanza, R., De Groot, R., Sutton, P., Van der Ploeg, S., Anderson, S. J., Kubiszewski, I., ... & Turner, R. K. (2014). Changes in the global value of ecosystem services. Global environmental change, 26, pp.152-158.
  37. Cuthbert, A. R. (2008). The form of cities: Political economy and urban design. John Wiley & Sons.
  38. Dawson, N., & Martin, A. (2015). Assessing the contribution of ecosystem services to human wellbeing: a disaggregated study in western Rwanda. Ecological Economics, 117, pp.62-72.
  39. Day, R. (2010). Environmental justice and older age: consideration of a qualitative neighbourhood-based study. Environment and Planning A, 42(11), pp.2658-2673.
  40. Denhardt, R. B., & Catlaw, T. J. (2014). Theories of public organization. Cengage Learning.
  41. Dikeç, M. (2001). Justice and the spatial imagination. Environment and planning A, 33(10), pp.1785-1805
  42. Doreen, M. (1994). Space, place and gender. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.
  43. Downey, L. (2006). Environmental inequality in metropolitan America in 2000. Sociological spectrum, 26(1), pp.21-41.
  44. Downey, L., & Hawkins, B. (2008). Single‐mother families and air pollution: A national study. Social science quarterly, 89(2), pp.523-536.
  45. Edwards, G. A., Reid, L., & Hunter, C. (2016). Environmental justice, capabilities, and the theorization of well-being. Progress in Human Geography, 40(6), pp.754-769.
  46. Environmental Protection Agency .(2009). Environmental justice: Compliance and
  47. Erlingsson, C., & Brysiewicz, P. (2017). A hands-on guide to doing content analysis. African Journal of Emergency Medicine, 7(3), pp.93-99.
  48. Fenster, T. (2005). Identity issues and local governance: Women's everyday life in the city. Social Identities, 11(1), pp.21-36.
  49. Few, R. (Ed.). (2013). Flood hazards and health: responding to present and future risks. Taylor & Francis.
  50. Fisher, J. A., Cavanagh, C. J., Sikor, T., & Mwayafu, D. M. (2018). Linking notions of justice and project outcomes in carbon offset forestry projects: Insights from a comparative study in Uganda. Land Use Policy, 73, pp.259-268.
  51. Flanquart, H., Hellequin, A. P., & Vallet, P. (2013). Living alongside hazardous factories: risk, choice and necessity. Health, Risk & Society, 15(8), pp.663-680.
  52. Fraser, N. (2000). Rethinking recognition. New left review, pp.3, 107.
  53. Fraser, N. (2014). Justice interruptus: Critical reflections on the" postsocialist" condition. Routledge.
  54. Friedmann, J. (1995). The right to the city. Society and Nature, 1(1), pp.71-84.
  55. Grineski, S. E., & Collins, T. W. (2018). Geographic and social disparities in exposure to air neurotoxicants at US public schools. Environmental research, 161, pp.580-587.
  56. Grineski, S. E., Collins, T. W., & Aguilar, M. D. L. R. (2015). Environmental injustice along the US–Mexico border: dwellerial proximity to industrial parks in Tijuana, Mexico. Environmental Research Letters, 10(9), 095012.
  57. Grineski, S. E., Collins, T. W., & Morales, D. X. (2017). Asian Americans and disproportionate exposure to carcinogenic hazardous air pollutants: A national study. Social Science & Medicine, 185, pp.71-80.
  58. Gustavsson, M., Lindström, L., Jiddawi, N. S., & De La Torre-Castro, M. (2014). Procedural and distributive justice in a community-based managed marine protected area in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Marine Policy, 46, pp.91-100.
  59. Harvey, D. (2008). The right to the city. The City Reader, 6(1), pp.23-40.
  60. Harvey, D. (2010). Social justice and the city (Vol. 1). University of Georgia Press.
  61. Harvey, D. (2012). Rebel cities: From the right to the city to the urban revolution. Verso books.
  62. He, S. (2015). Right to the city: A liberal-democratic perspective. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences; Elsevier: Oxford, UK, pp.673-679.
  63. Heynen, N., Kaika, M., & Swyngedouw, E. (Eds.). (2006). In the nature of cities: urban political ecology and the politics of urban metabolism (Vol. 3). Taylor & Francis.
  64. Hird, J. A. (1993). Environmental policy and equity: The case of Superfund. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 12(2), pp.323-343.
  65. Holifield, R. (2015). Environmental justice and political ecology. The Routledge Handbook of Political Ecology. London: Routledge, pp.585-97.
  66. Holifield, R., Chakraborty, J., & Walker, G. (2017). Introduction: The worlds of environmental justice. In The Routledge handbook of environmental justice (pp. 1-11). Routledge.
  67. Hughes, S. (2012). Environmental justice: concepts, evidence and politics.
  68. Isin, E. F., Wood, P. K., & Wood, P. (1999). Citizenship and identity (Vol. 448). Sage.
  69. Isin, E. F., Wood, P. K., & Wood, P. (1999). Citizenship and identity (Vol. 448). Sage.
  70. Jabareen, Y. (2014). ‘The right to the city’revisited: Assessing urban rights–The case of Arab Cities in Israel. Habitat International, 41, pp.135-141.
  71. Jim, C. Y. (2004). Green-space preservation and allocation for sustainable greening of compact cities. Cities, 21(4), pp.311-320.
  72. Khosravaninezhad, S., & Akbari, R. (2014). Application of environmental justice concept in urban planning, the peri-urban environment of Tehran as the case study. International Journal of Architectural Engineering and Urban Planning, 1, pp.56-64.
  73. Koprowska, K., Łaszkiewicz, E., & Kronenberg, J. (2020). Is urban sprawl linked to green space availability?. Ecological Indicators, 108, 105723.
  74. Krippendorff, K. (2018). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. Sage publications.
  75. Lake, D. A. (1996). Anarchy, hierarchy, and the variety of international relations. International organization, pp.1-33.
  76. Lamb, M. (2002, May). Vernacular Practice and the Emergence of Policy: An Analysis of Trespassing on a Brooklyn Golf Course. In a conference on Rights to the city, Rome, May.
  77. Langhelle, O. (2000). Sustainable development and social justice: expanding the Rawlsian framework of global justice. Environmental Values, 9(3), pp.295-323.
  78. Laurent, E. (2011). Issues in environmental justice within the European Union. Ecological Economics, 70(11), pp.1846-1853.
  79. Lecuyer, L., White, R. M., Schmook, B., Lemay, V., & Calmé, S. (2018). The construction of feelings of justice in environmental management: An empirical study of multiple biodiversity conflicts in Calakmul, Mexico. Journal of environmental management, 213, pp.363-373.
  80. Lefebvre, H. (1967). Le droit à la ville. L'Homme et la société, 6(1), pp.29-35.
  81. Lefebvre, H., Kofman, E., & Lebas, E. (1996). Writings on cities (Vol. 63). Oxford: Blackwell.
  82. Lester, J. P., Allen, D. W., & Hill, K. (2001). Environmental injustice in the United States: myths and realities. Boulder, Colo.
  83. Liu, J., Mooney, H., Hull, V., Davis, S. J., Gaskell, J., Hertel, T., ... & Li, S. (2015). Systems integration for global sustainability. Science, 347(6225).
  84. Liu, Y. (2018). Introduction to land use and rural sustainability in China. Land use policy, 74, 1-4.
  85. Ludlow, D. (2006). Urban sprawl in Europe: The ignored challenge.
  86. Marcuse, P., Connolly, J., Novy, J., Olivo, I., Potter, C., & Steil, J. (Eds.). (2009). Searching for the just city: debates in urban theory and practice. Routledge.
  87. Martin, A., McGuire, S., & Sullivan, S. (2013). Global environmental justice and biodiversity conservation. The Geographical Journal, 179(2), pp.122-131.
  88. McKittrick, K. (2011). On plantations, prisons, and a black sense of place. Social & Cultural Geography, 12(8), pp.947-963.
  89. McLaren, D., & Agyeman, J. (2015). Sharing cities: a case for truly smart and sustainable cities. Mit Press.
  90. Mees, H. L. P., & Driessen, P. P. (2011). Adaptation to climate change in urban areas: Climate-greening London, Rotterdam, and Toronto. Climate law, 2(2), pp.251-280.
  91. Middleton, N., & O'Keefe, P. (2001). Redefining sustainable development. London: Pluto Press.
  92. Mitchell, D. (2003). The right to the city: Social justice and the fight for public space. Guilford press.
  93. Mitchell, D., & Staeheli, L. (2002, May). Clean and safe? Redevelopment and homelessness in San Diego CA. In a conference on Rights to the city, Rome, May.
  94. Mitchell, R. C. (1980). Public opinion on environmental issues: Results of a national public opinion survey. Council on Environmental Quality.
  95. Mohai, P., & Saha, R. (2007). Racial inequality in the distribution of hazardous waste: A national-level reassessment. Social problems, 54(3), pp.343-370.
  96. Mohai, P., Pellow, D., & Roberts, J. T. (2009). Environmental justice. Annual review of environment and resources, 34, pp.405-430.
  97. Mullin, K., Mitchell, G., Nawaz, N. R., & Waters, R. D. (2018). Natural capital and the poor in England: Towards an environmental justice analysis of ecosystem services in a high income country. Landscape and Urban Planning, 176, pp.10-21
  98.  
  99. National Research Council. (2000). Ecological indicators for the nation. National Academies Press.
  100. National Research Council. (2008). Public participation in environmental assessment and decision making. National Academies Press.
  101.  
  102. NEJAC. (2004). Ensuring Risk Reduction in Communities with Multiple Stressors: Environmental Justice and Cumulative Risks/Impacts.
  103. Nussbaum, M. C. (2001). Women and human development: The capabilities approach (Vol. 3). Cambridge University Press.
  104. Occelli, F., Bavdek, R., Deram, A., Hellequin, A. P., Cuny, M. A., Zwarterook, I., & Cuny, D. (2016). Using lichen biomonitoring to assess environmental justice at a neighbourhood level in an industrial area of Northern France. Ecological Indicators, 60, pp.781-788.
  105. Paetzold, A., Warren, P. H., & Maltby, L. L. (2010). A framework for assessing ecological quality based on ecosystem services. Ecological complexity, 7(3), pp.273-281.
  106.  
  107. Pasgaard, M., Dawson, N., Rasmussen, L. V., Enghoff, M., & Jensen, A. (2017). The research and practice of integrating conservation and development: Self-reflections by researchers on methodologies, objectives and influence. Global Ecology and Conservation, 9,pp.50-60.
  108. Petrovic, N., Simpson, T., Orlove, B., & Dowd-Uribe, B. (2019). Environmental and social dimensions of community gardens in East Harlem. Landscape and Urban Planning, 183, pp.36-49.
  109.  
  110. Pickett, S. T., Boone, C. G., & Cadenasso, M. L. (2013). Ecology and environmental justice: understanding disturbance using ecological theory. In Urbanization and Sustainability (pp. 27-47). Springer, Dordrecht.
  111. Pierce, J., Williams, O. R., & Martin, D. G. (2016). Rights in places: An analytical extension of the right to the city. Geoforum, 70, pp.79-88.
  112. Polese, M., & Stren, R. (Eds.),(2000) The Social Sustainability of Cities: Diversity and the. Management of Change.
  113. Pollock III, P. H., & Vittas, M. E. (1995). Who bears the burdens of environmental pollution? Race, ethnicity, and environmental equity in Florida. Social Science Quarterly, pp.294-310.
  114. Pupphachai, U., & Zuidema, C. (2017). Sustainability indicators: A tool to generate learning and adaptation in sustainable urban development. Ecological Indicators, 72, pp.784-793.
  115. Purcell Jr, E. A. (2013). The crisis of democratic theory: Scientific naturalism and the problem of value. University Press of Kentucky.
  116. Purcell, M. (2014). Possible worlds: Henri Lefebvre and the right to the city. Journal of urban affairs, 36(1), pp.141-154.
  117. Rawls, J. (2009). A theory of justice. Harvard university press.
  118. Rigolon, A. (2016). A complex landscape of inequity in access to urban parks: A literature review. Landscape and Urban Planning, 153, pp.160-169.
  119. Rigolon, A. (2017). Parks and young people: An environmental justice study of park proximity, acreage, and quality in Denver, Colorado. Landscape and Urban Planning, 165, pp.73-83.
  120. Safier, M. (2005). Securing the Right to the City: the Case for Civic Cosmopolitanism. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation.
  121. Salem, H. S. (2019). No sustainable development in the lack of environmental justice. Environmental Justice, 12(3), pp.140-157.
  122. Salmon, S. (2001, February). The right to the city? Globalism, citizenship, and the struggle over urban space. In a conference on 97th Annual Meetings of the Association of American Geographers, New York, February.
  123. Schlosberg, D. (2003). The justice of environmental justice: reconciling equity, recognition, and participation in a political movement. Moral and political reasoning in environmental practice, pp.77, 106.
  124. Schlosberg, D. (2004). Reconceiving environmental justice: global movements and political theories. Environmental politics, 13(3), pp.517-540.
  125. Schlosberg, D. (2009). Defining environmental justice: Theories, movements, and nature. Oxford University Press.
  126. Schlosberg, D. (2013). Theorising environmental justice: the expanding sphere of a discourse. Environmental politics, 22(1), pp.37-55.
  127. Schlosberg, D., & Carruthers, D. (2010). Indigenous struggles, environmental justice, and community capabilities. Global Environmental Politics, 10(4), pp.12-35.
  128. Shrader-Frechette, K. (2002). Environmental justice: Creating equality, reclaiming democracy. Oxford University Press.
  129. Sikor, T., Martin, A., Fisher, J., & He, J. (2014). Toward an empirical analysis of justice in ecosystem governance. Conservation Letters, 7(6), pp.524-532.
  130. Singer, B. A. (1988). An extension of Rawls’ theory of justice to environmental ethics. Environmental ethics, 10(3), pp.217-231.
  131. Sterling, S. M., Ducharne, A., & Polcher, J. (2013). The impact of global land-cover change on the terrestrial water cycle. Nature Climate Change, 3(4), pp.385-390.
  132. Stretesky, P., & Lynch, M. J. (1998). Corporate environmental violence and racism. Crime, Law and Social Change, 30(2), pp.163-184.
  133. Stretesky, P., & Lynch, M. J. (1999). Environmental justice and the predictions of distance to accidental chemical releases in Hillsborough County, Florida. Social Science Quarterly, pp.830-846.
  134. Svarstad, H., & Benjaminsen, T. A. (2020). Reading radical environmental justice through a political ecology lens. Geoforum, 108, pp.1-11.
  135. UNESCO, & UN-HABITAT. (2006), International public Debates: Urban polices and the Right to the city. Paris: UNESCO.
  136. US General Accounting Office. (1983). Siting of hazardous waste landfills and their correlation with racial and economic status of surrounding communities. GAO 121648.
  137. Vacchelli, E., & Peyrefitte, M. (2018). From a/topia to topia: Towards a gendered right to the city for migrant volunteers in London. Cities, 76, pp.12-17.
  138. Van Herk, S., Zevenbergen, C., Ashley, R., & Rijke, J. (2011). Learning and Action Alliances for the integration of flood risk management into urban planning: a new framework from empirical evidence from The Netherlands. Environmental Science & Policy, 14(5), pp.543-554.
  139. Villamagna, A. M., Angermeier, P. L., & Bennett, E. M. (2013). Capacity, pressure, demand, and flow: a conceptual framework for analyzing ecosystem service provision and delivery. Ecological Complexity, 15, pp.114-121.
  140. Walker, G., & Burningham, K. (2011). Flood risk, vulnerability and environmental justice: evidence and evaluation of inequality in a UK context. Critical social policy, 31(2), pp.216-240.
  141. Wang, Y., Sun, M., Wang, R., & Lou, F. (2015). Promoting regional sustainability by eco-province construction in China: A critical assessment. Ecological indicators, 51, pp.127-138.
  142. Weber, M. (1968). Economy and society (g. roth & c. wittich, eds.). New York: Bedminster.
  143. Weber, R. P. (1990). Basic content analysis (No. 49). Sage.
  144. Wenz, P. S. (1988). Environmental justice. Suny Press.
  145. Xu, C., Haase, D., Pribadi, D. O., & Pauleit, S. (2018). Spatial variation of green space equity and its relation with urban dynamics: A case study in the region of Munich. Ecological indicators, 93, pp.512-523.
  146. Young, I. M. (2002). Inclusion and democracy. Oxford University press on demand.
  147. Zhai, T., Wang, J., Jin, Z., Qi, Y., Fang, Y., & Liu, J. (2020). Did improvements of ecosystem services supply-demand imbalance change environmental spatial injustices?. Ecological Indicators, 111, 106068.
  148. Zhao, X., Cheng, H., He, S., Cui, X., Pu, X., & Lu, L. (2018). Spatial associations between social groups and ozone air pollution exposure in the Beijing urban area. Environmental research, 164, pp.173-183.
  149. Zhu, Z., Ren, J., & Liu, X. (2019). Green infrastructure provision for environmental justice: Application of the equity index in Guangzhou, China. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 46, 126443.
  150. Zilney, L. A., McGurrin, D., & Zahran, S. (2006). Environmental justice and the role of criminology: An analytical review of 33 years of environmental justice research. Criminal Justice Review, 31(1), pp.47-62.
  151. Zimmermann, E., Bracalenti, L., Piacentini, R., & Inostroza, L. (2016). Urban flood risk reduction by increasing green areas for adaptation to climate change. Procedia engineering, 161, pp.2241-2246.