Placing Egress Components and Smoke Shafts in the Core Structure of Residential High-rise Buildings for Emergency Evacuation

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Architectural Technology, Faculty of Architecture, Collage of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 School of Architecture, University College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran

3 Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Fine Arts Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Architectural Technology, Faculty of Architecture, Collage of Fine Arts, University of Tehran,Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

There is a growing demand for the construction of high-rise buildings in modern metropolises which calls for accurate and all-encompassing studies to ensure the safety of the residents. The present study examined the role of smoke shafts in the performance of emergency evacuation in high-rise buildings. The aim of the study was to find the optimal location of smoke shafts as well as other refuge areas and components of emergency evacuation in the core structure of high-rise buildings. This study sought to answer the question whether there is a link between the location and number of smoke shafts and the number of people evacuated. The movement of the occupants was simulated using Steering and SFPE simulators. The Fire Dynamic Simulator (FDS) was used for fire and smoke dispersion. The number and location of smoke shafts were considered as the independent variable and the evacuation time as the dependent variable. The findings indicated that including two smoke shafts in connection with the refuge area in the core of high-rise building can accelerate evacuation by up to 40% in case of fire.

Keywords


  1. 1)       Algar, R., & Tricker, R. (2010). Scottish Building Standards in Brief. Routledge.
  2. 2)       AOV Smoke Shaft System, https://www.nationwidesp.co.uk/technologies/, Accessed: 9May2019.
  3. 3)       Bae, S., Ko, G. H., Lee, C. W., & Ryou, H. S. (2013, June). A network-based smoke control program with consideration of energy transfer in ultra-high-rise buildings, CAU_ESCAP. In Building Simulation (Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 173-182). Tsinghua Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12273-013-0101-3
  4. 4)       Bae, S., Shin, H. J., & Ryou, H. S. (2014, October). Development of CAU_USCOP, a network-based unsteady smoke simulation program for high-rise buildings. In Building Simulation (Vol. 7, No. 5, pp. 503-510). Tsinghua University Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12273-014-0172-9
  5. 5)       Beitel, J. J., & Iwankiw, N. (2008). Analysis of needs and existing capabilities for full-scale fire resistance testing. US Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Institute of Standards and Technology. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Nestor-Iwankiw/publication/266160483_Analysis_of_Needs_and_Existing_Capabilities_for_Full-Scale_Fire_Resistance_Testing/links/556f36c408aeab7772282ff8/Analysis-of-Needs-and-Existing-Capabilities-for-Full-Scale-Fire-Resistance-Testing.pdf
  6. 6)       British Standard BS EN12101-8 Smoke Control Dampers.
  7. 7)       BS 9991: 2015 Fire safety in the design, management and use of residential buildings, BSI 2015.
  8. 8)       BS EN 12101 Smoke and heat control systems, multi-part document, BSI. https://www.academia.edu/7279625/111163671_BS_en_12101_6_Smoke_and_Heat_Control_Systems
  9. 9)       Colt Smoke Control: Shaft Ventilation, https://www.coltinfo.co.uk/smoke-control/systems/shaft-ventilation.html, Accessed 9May2019.
  10. 10)   Criteria for design and execution of fire elevators and related lobbies, amendment, published on 1/7/1396, in the portal of the country's fire department.
  11. 11)   Dutton, Ted. "Bold new tactics for fighting high-rise fires". Popular Mechanics Sep 1977: 67-71. Print.
  12. 12)   Eskandari, Saeedeh. (1394). an analysis of modeling and simulation methods for forest fire spread. Man and the Environment, 13 (3), 67-88. https://he.srbiau.ac.ir/article_11063.html?lang=en
  13. 13)   Fire safety in the design, management and use of buildings. Code of practice, (BSI, 2017).
  14. 14)   Fridolf, K., Nilsson, D., Frantzich, H., Ronchi, E., & Arias, S. (2018). Walking Speed in Smoke: Representation in Life Safety Verifications. In the 12th International Performance-Based Codes and Fire Safety Design Methods Conference. https://www.wsp.com/-/media/Insights/Sweden/Documents/2018/WALKING-SPEED-IN-SMOKE-REPRESENTATION-IN-LIFE-SAFETY.pdf
  15. 15)   Gershon, R. R., Qureshi, K. A., Rubin, M. S., & Raveis, V. H. (2007). Factors associated with high-rise evacuation: qualitative results from the World Trade Center Evacuation Study. Prehospital and disaster medicine, 22(3), 165-173.
  16. 16)   Guidance on smoke control to common escape routes in apartment buildings (flats and maisonettes) rev 3.1, Smoke Control Association, July 2020.
  17. 17)   Gutierrez-Montes C, Rein G, Sanmiguel-Rojas E, Viedma A (2009). Smoke and fire dynamics in atria and large enclosures: An overview. In: Soggard I, Krogh H (eds), Fire Safety. Hauppauge, NY, USA: Nova Science Publishers. http://hdl.handle.net/10317/8417
  18. 18)   Gutierrez-Montes C, Sanmiguel-Rojas E, Kaiser AS, Viedma A (2008). Numerical model and validation experiments of atrium enclosure fire in a new fire test facility. Building and Environment, 43: 1912–1928. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2007.11.010
  19. 19)   Hackitt, J, Building a safer future – independent review of building regulations and fire safety: interim report, UK Government, 2017. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/707785/Building_a_Safer_Future_-_web.pdf
  20. 20)   Hamins, A. P., & McGrattan, K. B. (2007). Verification and Validation of Selected Fire Models for Nuclear Power Plant Applications. Volume 2. Experimental Uncertainty (NUREG 1824) (No. OTHER-1824). https://www.nist.gov/publications/verification-and-validation-selected-fire-models-nuclear-power-plant-applications-0?pub_id=909982
  21. 21)   How does a smoke shaft system work? , http://groupscs.co.uk/smoke-shaft-system/, Accessed: 9May2019.
  22. 22)   Kealy, M, Preview: Smoke control, CIBSE Guide E Fire Safety Engineering, CIBSE Journal, accessed 1 July 2020.
  23. 23)   Klote, J. H. (1984). The ASHRAE design manual for smoke control. Fire safety journal, 7(1), 93-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/0379-7112(84)90012-2
  24. 24)   Lovreglio, R., Ronchi, E., Maragkos, G., Beji, T., & Merci, B. (2016). A dynamic approach for the impact of a toxic gas dispersion hazard considering human behaviour and dispersion modelling. Journal of hazardous materials, 318, 758-771. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.06.015
  25. 25)   MacLeod, G. (2018). The Grenfell Tower atrocity: Exposing urban worlds of inequality, injustice, and an impaired democracy. City, 22(4), 460-489. https://doi.org/10.1080/13604813.2018.1507099
  26. 26)   McKee, M. (2017). Grenfell Tower fire: why we cannot ignore the political determinants of health. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j2966
  27. 27)   National Fire Protection Association. (2006). NFPA 92A: Standard for Smoke-Control Systems Utilizing Barriers and Pressure Differences. National Fire Protection Association. https://www.nfpa.org/codes-and-standards/all-codes-and-standards/list-of-codes-and-standards/detail?code=92A
  28. 28)   National Research Council. (2006). Facing hazards and disasters: Understanding human dimensions. National Academies Press.
  29. 29)   Nelson, H. E., and Mowrer, F. W. "Emergency Movement." The SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering Ed. DiNenno, P., and Walton, D. W. National Fire Protection Association 2002. 3-367 - 3-380. https://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/20001554261/
  30. 30)   Nulaid News, Volumes 27-28, Poultry Producers of Central California., 1949, Cornell University, Mar 27, 2009.
  31. 31)   Peng, L., Ni, Z., & Huang, X. (2013). Review on the fire safety of exterior wall claddings in high-rise buildings in China. Procedia Engineering, 62, 663-670. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2013.08.112
  32. 32)   Ronchi E & Kinsey M (2011). Evacuation models of the future. Insights from an online survey on user‘s experiences and needs. In Proceedings of EVAC11, Santander (Spain). http://portal.research.lu.se/portal/files/5642023/4173224.pdf
  33. 33)   Ronchi, E., Alvear, D., Berloco, N., Capote, J., Colonna, P., & Cuesta, A. (2010, July). Human behaviour in road tunnel fires: Comparison between egress models (FDS+ Evac, STEPS, Pathfinder). In Proceedings of the 12th international Interflam 2010 conference, Nottingham, UK (pp. 837-848).
  34. 34)   Smoke vent doors, https://pezcame.com/c21va2UgdmVudCBkb29ycw/, Accessed: 9May2019.
  35. 35)   Stec, A. A., Dickens, K., Barnes, J. L., & Bedford, C. (2019). Environmental contamination following the Grenfell Tower fire. Chemosphere, 226, 576-586. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.03.153
  36. 36)   T. Jin, “Visibility through Fire Smoke,” Journal of Fire & Flammability, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 135- 155, 1978. http://pascal-francis.inist.fr/vibad/index.php?action=getRecordDetail&idt=PASCAL7880457521
  37. 37)   Takagi, J. (2007). Collapse performance assessment of steel-framed buildings under fires. Ph. D. Dissertation, Stanford University. https://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10019687296/
  38. 38)   Tamura, G. T., & Shaw, C. Y. (1973). Basis for the design of smoke shafts. Fire technology, 9(3), 209-222. http://web.mit.edu/parmstr/Public/NRCan/rp595.pdf
  39. 39)   Vigne, G., Węgrzyński, W., Cantizano, A., Ayala, P., Rein, G., & Gutiérrez-Montes, C. (2020, September). Experimental and computational study of smoke dynamics from multiple fire sources inside a large-volume building. In Building Simulation (pp. 1-15). Tsinghua University Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12273-020-0715-1
  40. 40)   Wang, Y., & Gao, F. (2004). Tests of stairwell pressurization systems for smoke control in a high-rise building. ASHRAE Transactions, 110, 185. https://search.proquest.com/openview/b5941b50b090f9fdaef0c065d7110217/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=34619
  41. 41)   White, N., Delichatsios, M., Ahrens, M., & Kimball, A. (2013). Fire hazards of exterior wall assemblies containing combustible components. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 9, p. 02005). EDP Sciences. http://theriveroflife.com/wp-content/plugins/White-Delichatsios-RF-Fire-Hazards-of-ExteriorWallAssembliesContainingCombustibleComponents.pdf
  42. 42)   Xie, Q., Tu, R., Wang, N., Ma, X., & Jiang, X. (2014). Experimental study on flowing burning behaviors of a pool fire with dripping of melted thermoplastics. Journal of hazardous materials, 267, 48-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.12.033
  43. 43)   Yan, G., Wang, M., Yu, L., Duan, R., & Xia, P. (2020, August). Effects of ambient pressure on smoke movement patterns in vertical shafts in tunnel fires with natural ventilation systems. In Building simulation (Vol. 13, pp. 931-941). Tsinghua University Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12273-020-0631-4
  44. 44)   Yarlagadda, T., Hajiloo, H., Jiang, L., Green, M., & Usmani, A. (2018). Preliminary modelling of Plasco tower collapse. International Journal of High-Rise Buildings, 7(4), 397-408. https://doi.org/10.21022/IJHRB.2018.7.4.397
  45. 45)   Zhang, P., Wang, K., & Wang, S. (2011). The effect on control the smoke by different heights of outlet in high-rise building evacuation stairwell anteroom. Journal of Shenyang Jianzhu University (Natural Science), 27(6), 1146-1150. https://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-SYJZ201106023.htm