Spatial-Social Place attachment: Impact of Spatial-Social Co-existence on Place Attachment in Sociable Places of Architectural Schools Setting; Case Studies: TABRIZ, Iran

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Architecture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.

2 Department of Urban Planning and Design, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran

Abstract

The present study is focused on place attachment from environmental designers’ point of view. The study’s aim is to offer a helpful and practical model of place attachment for its audience; this is done using the Spatial-Social Place attachment(SSPa)model. Based on this model’s hypothesis, place attachment has two aspects: spatial and social; a purposeful and methodical (systematic) study of these two aspects produces reliable and practical results on the subject of place attachment for architects and environmental designers. To study and complete the proposed model, the writers selected architecture schools located in Tabriz as their behavioral settings. Based on the SSPa model, visual base systematic field studies, mental mappings, behavioral mappings, deep interviews, and direct observation of case studies were conducted. Ultimately, designing recommendations in the form of factors influencing place attachment in faculty’s gathering places are as follows: 1) physical form; 2) activities; 3) climate; 4) views and landscapes; 5) privacy; 6) elements and furniture; 7) places in the vicinity of a gathering place. By specifying the factors influencing place attachment in behavioral-social settings, the practical outputs of this study intended for designers and architects proved the validity and efficiency of the SSPa model.

Keywords


  1. ABU-GHAZZEH, T. M. (1999) ‘COMMUNICATING BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH TO CAMPUS DESIGN Factors Affecting the Perception and Use of Outdoor Spaces at the University of Jordan’, ENVIRONMENT AND BEHAVIOR, 31: 764-804.
  2. Abu-Obeid, N., & Al-Homoud, M. (2011) ‘Sense of Privacy and Territoriality as a Function of Spatial Layout in University Public Spaces’, Architectural Science Review, 43: 211-219.
  3. Altman, I., & Low, S. M. (1992) Place attachment. A conceptual inquiry. New York: Plenum Press.
  4. Anton,C. E., Lawrence, C. (2014) ‘Home is where the heart is: The effect of place of residence on place attachment and community participation’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 40: 451-461.
  5. Arentze, T. A., & Timmermans, H. J. P. (2000) Albatross: A learning-based transportation oriented simulation system. Eindhoven, The Netherlands: European Institute of Retailing and Services Studies.
  6. ATLAS.ti: The Qualitative Data Analysis & Research Software. Software available in: http://atlasti.com/product/features/2016.
  7. Barker, R. (1976) On the nature of the environment. In: Proshansky, H., Ittelson, W., Rivlin, L., editors. Environmental Psychology: People and Their Physical Settings. New York (NY): Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
  8. BILLIG, M. (2006) ‘IS MY HOME MY CASTLE? Place Attachment, Risk Perception, and Religious Faith’, ENVIRONMENT AND BEHAVIOR, 38: 248-265.
  9. Billig, M., & Zorkraut, S. (in press) ‘To hold on to the land: Ideology, place attachment and risk perception in Samaria (in Hebrew)’, Megamot Behavioral Sciences Quarterly.
  10. Bjorklid, P. (1982) Children’s Outdoor Environment. A Study of Children’s Outdoor Activities in Two Housing Estates from the Perspective of Environmental and Developmental Psychology. Stockholm (Sweden): Stockholm Institute of Education.
  11. Boğaç, C. (2009) ‘Place attachment in a foreign settlement’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29, 267–278.
  12. Brown, B., Perkins, D., & Brown, G. (2003) ‘Place attachment in a revitalizing neighborhood: individual and block levels of analysis’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23: 259–271.
  13. Canter, D. (1977) ‘Book review of E. Relph, `Place and placelessness'’, Environment and Planning, 4: 118-120.
  14. Canter, D. (1997) The facets of place. In G. T. Moore & R. W. Marans, (Eds.), Advances in Environment, Behavior, and Design,Vol. 4: Toward the Integration of Theory, Methods, Research, and Utilization. New York: Plenum, 109-147.
  15. Carmona, M., Heath, T., Oc, T. & Tiesdell, S. (2010) Public Places Urban Spaces. Routledge; 2 edition.
  16. Chow, K., & Healey, M. (2008) ‘Place attachment and place identity: first-year undergraduates making the transition from home to university’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28: 362–372.
  17. COSCO, N. G., MOORE, R. C., & ISLAM, M. Z. (2010) ‘Behavior Mapping: A Method for Linking Preschool Physical Activity and Outdoor Design’, MEDICINE & SCIENCE IN SPORTS & EXERCISE, Applied Sciences, 513-519. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181cea27a
  18. Francis, J., Giles-Corti, B., Wood, L., & Knuiman, M. (2012) ‘Creating sense of community: The role of public space’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 32: 401-409.
  19. Fried, M. (2000) ‘Continuities and discontinuities of place’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 20: 193–205.
  20. Gehl, J. (2013) Cities for People. 1st Edition (2010).
  21. Gibson, E., & Pick, A. (2000) An Ecological Approach to Perceptual Learning and Development. New York (NY): Oxford University Press.
  22. Gibson, J. (1986) The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Hillsdale (NJ): Erlbaum.
  23. Giuliani, M.V.,& Feldman, R. (1993) ‘Place attachment in a developmental and cultural context’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13: 267-274.
  24. Giuliani, M. V. (2003) Theory of attachment and place attachment. In M. Bonnes, T. Lee, & M. Bonaiuto (Eds.), Psychological theories for environmental issues (pp. 137–170). Aldershot: Ashgate.
  25. Golicnik, B., & Thompson, C. W. (2010) ‘Emerging relationships between design and use of urban park spaces’, Landscape and Urban Planning, 94: 38–53.
  26. GUSTAFSON, P. (2001) ‘MEANINGS OF PLACE: EVERYDAY EXPERIENCE AND THEORETICAL CONCEPTUALIZATIONS’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21: 5-16.
  27. Hannes, E., Janssens, D., & Wets, G. (2009) ‘Does Space Matter? Travel Mode Scripts in Daily Activity Travel’, Environment and Behavior, 41, 75-100.
  28. Hay, R. (1998) ‘A rooted sense of place in cross-cultural perspective’, Canadian Geographer, 42: 245-266.
  29. Hay, R. (1998) ‘Sense of place in developmental context’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18: 5–29.
  30. Heft, H. (1998) Towards a functional ecology of behavior and development: the legacy of Joachim F. Wohlwill. In: Gorlitz, D., Harloff, H.J., Mey, G., Valsiner, J., editors. Children, Cities, and Psychological Theories: Developing Relationships. Berlin (Germany): Walter De Gruyter.
  31. Hernandez, B., Hidalgo, M. C., Salazar-Laplace, M. E., & Hess, S. (2007) ‘Place attachment and place identity in natives and non-natives’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 27: 310–319.
  32. Hernandez, B., Martın, A. M., Ruiz, C., & Hidalgo, M. D. C. (2010) ‘The role of place identity and place attachment in breaking environmental protection laws’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30: 281–288.
  33. Hidalgo, M. C., & Hernandez, B. (2001) ‘Place attachment: conceptual and empirical questions’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21: 273–281.
  34. Hipp, J. A., Gulwadi, G. B., Alves, S., & Sequeira, S. (2015) ‘The Relationship between Perceived Greenness and Perceived Restorativeness of University Campuses and Student-Reported Quality of Life’, Environment and Behavior, online available, 1–17. DOI: 10.1177/0013916515598200
  35. Hummon, D. M. (1992) Community attachment: local sentiment and sense of place. In L. Altman, & S. M. Low (Eds.), Place attachment (pp. 253–278). New York: Plenum.
  36. Husserl, E. (1954) Die krisis der europaischen wissenschaften und die transzendentale phanomenologie: Eine einleitung in die phanomenologische philosophie. Den Haag: Nijhoff.
  37. Jorgensen, B. S., & Stedman, R. C. (2001) ‘Sense of place as an attitude: lakeshore owners’ attitudes toward their properties’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21: 233–248.
  38. Kaplan, R., & Kaplan, S. (2005) Preference, restoration, and meaningful action in the context of nearby nature. In P. F. Barlett (Ed.), urban place: Reconnecting with the natural world (pp. 271–298). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  39. Kaplan, S., & Kaplan, R. (2009) ‘Creating a larger role for environmental psychology: The Reasonable Person Model as an integrative framework’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29: 329–339.
  40. Kasalı, A., & Doğan, F. (2010) ‘Fifth-, sixth-, and seventh- grade students’ use of non-classroom spaces during recess: The case of three private schools in Izmir, Turkey’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30: 518-532.
  41. Kasarda, J., & Janowitz, M. (1974) ‘Community attachment in mass society’, American Sociological Review, 39: 328-339.
  42. Kinoshita, I. (2007) ‘Children’s participation in Japan: an overview of municipal strategies and citizen movements’, CYE [Internet], 17, 269–86. Available from: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye/17_1/17_1_16_MunicipalStrategies.pdf.
  43. Knez, I. (2005) ‘Attachment and identity as related to a place and its perceived climate’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25: 207–218.
  44. Korpela, K. M. (1989) ‘Place-identity as a product of environmental self-regulation’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 9: 241–256.
  45. Korpela, K., Ylen, M., Tyrvainen, L., & Silvennoinen, H. (2009) ‘Stability of selfreported favourite places and place attachment over a 10-month period’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29: 95–1000.
  46. Kyle, G. T., Jun, J., & Absher, J. D. (2014) ‘Bonding Repositioning Identity in Conceptualizations of Human-Place’, Environment and Behavior, 46: 1018–1043.
  47. Lang, J. (1987) Creating Architectural Theory: The Role of the Behavioral Sciences in Environmental Design. Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  48. Lee, T. H., & Shen, Y. L. (2013) ‘The influence of leisure involvement and place attachment on destination loyalty: Evidence from recreationists walking their dogs in urban parks’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 33: 76-85.
  49. Lewicka, M. (2005) ‘Ways to make people active: the role of place attachment, cultural capital, and neighbourhood ties’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25: 381–395.
  50. Low, S. M. (1992) Symbolic ties that bind. In I. Altman & Y. S. Low (Eds.), Place attachment, human behavior and environment (pp. 165-185). New York: Plenum.
  51. Low, S. M., & Altman, I. (1992) Place attachment: A conceptual inquiry. In I. Altman & S. M. Low (Eds.), Place attachment: Human behavior and environment (pp. 165-185). New York, NY: Plenum.
  52. Lynch, K. (1960) The Image of the City. Harvard-MIT Joint Center for Urban Studies Series, 1st Edition.
  53. Madanipour, A. (1996) Design of Urban Space: An Inquiry into a Socio-Spatial. Tehran University: Process 1st Edition.
  54. Mannarini, T., Tartaglia, S., Fedi,A., & Greganti, K. (2006) ‘Image of neighborhood, selfimage and sense of community’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 26: 202-214.
  55. Manzo, L. C. (2003) ‘Beyond house and haven: toward a revisioning of emotional relationships with place’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23: 47–61.
  56. McMillan, D. W., & Chavis, D. M. (1986) ‘Sense of community: A definition and theory’,Journal of Community Psychology, 14: 6-23.
  57. Mehta, V., & Bosson, J. K. (2010) ‘Third Places and the Social Life of Streets’, Environment and Behavior, 42: 779–805.
  58. Mesch, G. S., & Manor, G. (1998) ‘Social ties, environmental perception, and local attachment’, Environment and Behavior, 30: 504-519.
  59. Milligan, M. J. (1998) ‘Interactional past and potential: The social construction of place attachment’, Symbolic Interactionism, 21, 1-33.
  60. Moore, R. (1978) Meanings and measures of child/environment quality: some findings from the environmental yard. In: Rogers W, Ittelson W, editors. New Directions in Environmental Design Research. Washington (DC): EDRA; pp. 287–306.
  61. Moore, R. (1986) ‘The power of nature: orientations of girls and boys toward biotic and abiotic settings on a reconstructed schoolyard’, Child Environ Q., 3: 52–69.
  62. Moore, R. L., & Graefe, A. R. (1994) ‘Attachments to recreation settings: The case of rail-trail users’, Leisure Sciences: 16, 17–31.
  63. Moore, R., & Wong, H. (1997) Natural Learning: Creating Environments for Rediscovering Nature’s Way of Teaching. Berkeley (CA): MIG Communications.
  64. Moos, R. H. (1978) ‘Social Environments of University Students Living Groups Architectural and Organizational Correlates’, Environment and Behavior, 10: 109-127.
  65. Perkins, D. D., & Long, A. D. (2002) Neighborhood sense of community and social capital: A multi-level analysis. In A. Fisher, C. Sonn, & B. Bishop (Eds.), Psychological sense of community: Research, applications and implications (pp. 291-318). New York: Plenum Press.
  66. Pretty, G., Chipuer, H., & Bramston, P. (2003) ‘Sense of place amongst adolescents and adults in two rural Australian towns: the discriminating features of place attachment, sense of community and place dependence in relation to place identity’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23: 273–287.
  67. Proshansky, H. M., Fabian, A., & Kaminoff, R. (1983) ‘Place identity: physical world and socialization of the self’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3: 57–83.
  68. Puddifoot, J. E. (1994) ‘Community identity and sense of belonging in a northeastern English town’, Journal of Social Psychology, 34: 601–608.
  69. Qian, J., Zhu, H., & Liu, Y. (2011) ‘Investigating urban migrants’ sense of place through a multi-scalar perspective’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 31: 170-183.
  70. Raymond, C. M., Brown, G., & Weber, D. (2010) ‘The measurement of place attachment: Personal, community, and environmental Connections’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30: 422-434.
  71. Relph, E. (1976) Place and placelessness. London: Pion Limited.
  72. Rollero, C., & Piccoli, N. D. (2010) ‘Place attachment, identification and environment perception: An empirical study’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30: 198–205.
  73. Scannell, L., & Gifford, R. (2010). ‘Defining place attachment: A tripartite organizing framework’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30: 1-10.
  74. Schultz, C. N. (1991) Genius Loci: Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture. Paperback – June 15.
  75. Schumaker, S. A., & Taylor, R. B. (1983) Towards a clarification of people-place relationship: A model of attachment to place. In N. R. Feimer, & E. S. Geller (Eds.), Environmental psychology: Directions and perspectives. New York, NY: Praeger.
  76. Shamsuddin, S., & Ujang, N. (2008) ‘Making places: The role of attachment in creating the sense of place for traditional streets in Malaysia’, Habitat International, 32: 399–409.
  77. Smaldone, D., Harris, C., & Sanyal, N. (2005) ‘An exploration of place as a process: The case of Jackson Hole, WY’,Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25: 397–414.
  78. Spartz, J. T., & Shaw, B. R. (2011) ‘Place meanings surrounding an urban natural area: A qualitative inquiry’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 31: 344-352.
  79. STEDMAN, R. C. (2002) ‘TOWARD A SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF PLACE Predicting Behavior From Place-Based Cognitions, Attitude, and Identity’, ENVIRONMENT AND BEHAVIOR, 34: 561-581.
  80. Stedman, R. C. (2003) ‘Is it really just a social construction? The contribution of the physical environment to sense of place’, Society & Natural Resources, 16: 671–685.
  81. Stokols, D., & Shumaker, S. A. (1981) People in places: A transactional view of settings. In J. H. Harvey (Ed.), Cognition, social behavior and the environment (pp. 441–488). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  82. SUGIHARA, S., & EVANS, G. W. (2000) ‘PLACE ATTACHMENT AND SOCIAL SUPPORT AT CONTINUING CARE RETIREMENT COMMUNITIES’, ENVIRONMENT AND BEHAVIOR, 32: 400-409.
  83. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979) An integrative theory of social conflict. In W. E. Austin, & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations. Chicago: Nelson Hall.
  84. Tajfel, H. (1981) Human groups and social categories: Studies in social psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  85. Trost, S., Ward, D., & Senso, M. (2010) ‘Effects of child care policy and environment on physical activity’, Med Sci Sports Exerc., 42: 520–525.
  86. TVERSKY, B. (2003) ‘STRUCTURES OF MENTAL SPACES How People Think About Space’, ENVIRONMENT AND BEHAVIOR, 35: 66-80.
  87. Tuan, Y. F. (1974) Topophilia: A study of environmental perception. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  88. Tuan, Y. F. (1977) Space and Place: The perspective of experience. Minneapolis, MN: Minnesota University Press.
  89. Tuan, Y. F. (1980) ‘Rootedness versus sense of place’, Landscape, 24: 3-8.
  90. Twigger-Ross, C. L., & Uzzell, D. L. (1996) ‘Place and identity process’, Journal of Enviromental Psychology, 16: 205–220.
  91. Ujang, N., & Zakariya, K. (2015) ‘The Notion of Place, Place Meaning and Identity in Urban Regeneration’, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 170: 709 – 717.
  92. Uzzell, D., Pol, E., & Badenas, D. (2002) ‘Place identification, social cohesion and environmental sustainability’, Environment and Behavior, 34: 26–53.
  93. Whyte, H. W. (1980) The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. Paperback – March 1, 2001 by William H. Whyte.