Impact of Environmental Conditions on the Aspect of Religion Archetype in Urban Areas (Case Study: Comparison of two Citiesو Sanandaj and Yazd)

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of urban planning and Design, Faculty of Art and Architecture, University of Kurdistan, Iran.

2 Department of urban planning and Design, Faculty of Art and Architecture, University of Kurdistan, Iran


Religion as the most important relationship between mankind andGod plays an important role in human mental relaxation. Jung considered religion as one of the most important archetypes of the collective subconscious mind and believed that the archetypes are primarily the result of human generations’ experiences, created like the human instinctive adaptations and affect human behavior and perceptions. Therefore, psychological adaptations, like physical adaptations, are influenced by the environment and different environments will lead to different adaptations. Religion as a mental adaptation has three main components of fear, hope and loving God. The environment plays an important role in the effectiveness and superiority of each of these components over man's relationship with God; however, how understanding religion, which results from diverse environmental characteristics, is reflected in the religious uses and urban spaces. To investigate this question, the historical context of two cities of ‘Sanandaj and Yazd’ that are very different in terms of environmental conditions are compared using the inductive method and library studies. Finally, it was observed that various environmental conditions cause different understanding of religion and hence caused the superiority of its components on the residents of the two cities. In fact, the merciful and giving environments lead superiority of the element of hope in God, and hazardous environments cause fear of God in man's relationship with God that both perceptions are reflected in the design and site selection for religious uses. Therefore, urban planners should pay special attention to environmental characteristics as the causative agent of psychological adaptations to create spaces harmonious with spirits and historical identity of citizens.can be categorized into three eras and in the framework of different subjects like structure-forming ideas, stylistic references, etc.


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