The Impact of Land Tenure Security on Housing Investment at Informal Settlements (The Case of Eslamabad Neighborhood, Tehran)

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism Tabriz Islamic Art University, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Islamic Arts University of Tabriz. Tabriz, Iran

3 Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

4 Islamic Azad University Of Qazvin, Qazvin, Iran

5 School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.

Abstract

In recent years, tenure security has been one of the main objectives of improvement projects in ‎urban poor settlements. Despite lots of international studies initiated in this field, it has received ‎little attention in Iran. The main aim of this paper is to assess the influence of tenure security on ‎the level of household investment in housing. Survey method is considered as the methodology ‎of this research hence questionnaires were prepared and filled in EslamAbad Neighbourhood of ‎Tehran, Iran. In this study, Legal, extra-legal, perceptive fear of eviction, and the probability of ‎eviction were four main indices used to measure tenure security with household income index as ‎a controller variable. The findings of the research showed that there is‏ ‏a significant relationship ‎between three different kinds of tenure security. In addition, it revealed that between five ‎indices used, only three indices (e.g. legal, household income and perceived fear of eviction) ‎affect the level of investment in housing by household. In comparison to other indices, fear of ‎eviction was the most important factor that affects tenure security.‎

Keywords


  1. Aristizabal, A. (2004)’ Improving security without titles in Bogotá’, Habitat International 28:245–58.
  2. Bigdeli. D. (2004) ‘Organizing informal settlement: Case of research, Alley of Fatemiyeh Zanjan’ M.Sc. The thesis of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Zanjan: In Persian.
  3. Broegaard, R.J. (2005)’Land tenure insecurity and inequality in Nicaragua’ Development and Change 36: 845–864.
  4. Bromley. D. W. (2008) ’Formalizing property relations in the Developing world: the wrong prescription for the wrong malady‘ Land Use Policy 26:20–27.
  5. Calderón. J.A. (2004) ’The formalization of property in Peru 2001–2002: the case of Lima‘ Habitat International 28: 289–300.
  6. Dadashpour, H. B. Alizadeh & M.Rafian. (2011) ‘Examining and Analyzing of the Role of Land Legal and De-Facto Tenure Security in the Level of Residents Participation in Improvement Programs: The Case Study of Eslam_Abad Neighborhood of Tehran, Iran’ Urban - Regional Studies and Research Journal 7: 91-112. [in Persian]
  7. Daneshpour, S.A and Soleimani Roudi, A. (2018)’ Exclusionary Decision Making in Tehran Metropolitan RegionComplexity, Self organization and Power of Action’ Space Ontology International Journal, Vol 7, Issue 3, pp. 23-34‎.
  8. De Soto, H. (2000)’The mystery of capital: why capitalism triumphs in the West and fails everywhere else’, New York.
  9. De Soto. H. (1989)’the Other Path: The Invisible Revolution in the Third World. Harpers and Row Publishers Inc‘ New York.
  10. De Souza. F. A. M. (1999)’Land tenure security and housing improvements in Recife, Brazil‘ Habitat International 23: 19–33.
  11. De Souza. F.A.M. (2000)’ Perceived security of land tenure in Recife, Brazil‘ Habitat International 25:175–90.
  12. Durand-Lasserve, A. H.Selod. (2007)’ The formalization of urban land tenure in developing countries’ In Paper Presented at the World Bank's Urban Research Symposium: Washington, DC: 14–16.
  13. Durand-Lasserve. A. L. Royston. (2002)’ International trends and country contexts - from tenure regularization to tenure security‘ London, Earthscan
  14. Durand-Lasserve.A. (2006)’Informal settlements and the millennium development goals: global policy debates on property ownership and security of tenure‘ Global Urban Development 2: 1–15.
  15. Ferguson B, J. Navarrete. (2003)’New approaches to progressive housing in Latin America: a key to habitat programs and policy‘ Habitat International 27: 309–23.
  16. Fernandes. E. A. Varley. (1998) ‘ Law, the city and citizenship in developing countries‘ an introduction: London,
  17. FIG/UNCHS. (1998)’Informal Settlements, Security of Tenure, Urban Land Management and Local Governance: Experiences in Implementing the Habitat Agenda‘ Draft Report of the Durban Conference August 1997. 49 Pages unedited report.
  18. Friedman J., E. Jimenez, S.K. Mayo. (1988)’The demand for tenure security in developing countries‘ Journal of Development Economics 29:185–198.
  19. Ghahremani, M. (2018)’ Investigating the Relationship between Density and Social sustainability in Informal Settlements, Case Study: Khezr District of Hamadan’ Space Ontology International Journal, Vol 7, Issue 2, pp. 47-54‎.
  20. Gilbert, A. G. (2002)’On the mystery of capital and the myths of Hernando De Soto: what difference does legal title make?’ International Development Planning Review 16: 1–19.
  21. Gilbert. A.G. (1994)’The Latin American City‘ The Latin America Bureau: London.
  22. Jiménez. E. (1984) ‘Tenure security and urban squatting‘ The Review of Economics and Statistics 66: 556–567.
  23. Karst. K.L. (1971)’Rights in land and housing in an informal legal system: the barrios of Caracas‘ American Journal of Comparative Law 19: 550–74.
  24. Kim. A. (2004)’A market without the right property rights‘ Economics of Transition 12: 275–305.
  25. Kundu. A. (2004)’ Provision of tenurial security for the urban poor in Delhi: recent trends and future perspectives‘ Habitat International, 28:259–274.
  26. Mahmoudee Paty. F. (2008)’Policies of urban land management‘ shahidy-ee Press, Tehran: In Persian.
  27. Ministry of Housing and Urban Development. (2003)’ National Document of Empowerment in informal settlements‘ [In Persian].
  28. Pamuk. A. (2000)’Informal institutional arrangements in credit, land markets and infrastructure delivery in Trinidad‘ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 24: 379–396.
  29. Payne. G, Durand-Lasserve, A., & Rakodi, C. (2007)’Social and economic impacts of land titling programmes in urban and peri-urban areas: a review of the literature‘ Paper prepared for the World Bank’s fourth Urban Research Symposium, Washington, DC, May ,14–16.
  30. Payne. G. (1997)’ Urban land tenure and property rights in developing Countries‘ A Review, IT Publications/Overseas Development Administration: London.
  31. Payne. G. (2001)’ Urban land tenure policy options: titles or rights?’ Habitat International 25: 415–29.
  32. Payne. G. (2002)’ Land, rights, and innovation: Improving tenure security for the poor‘ ITDG Publishing London,
  33. Piran. P. (1995)’ Informal settlements in Iran‘ Ettelaat-e-Siasi and Eghtesadi 95: 125–129.
  34. Pouraghaee. A. (2004)’ Examining and analyzing of informal settlements in Rasht city and suitable solutions for their presses‘ M.Sc. The thesis of Geography and Urban Planning, University of Yazd: In Persian.
  35. Razzaz. O. M. (1993)’Examining property rights and investment in informal settlements: the case of Jordan‘ Land Economics 69(4): 341–355.
  36. Reerink. G., J. L Van Gelder. ( 2010)’ Land titling, perceived tenure security, and housing consolidation in the kampongs of Bandung, Indonesia‘ Habitat International 34: 78–85.
  37. Salehi, E and  Zebardastb, L. (2015)’ Application of driving force- Pressure- State- Impact- Response (DPSIR) Framework for Analyzing the Human habitat in City of Tehran’ Space Ontology International Journal, Vol 4, Issue 2, pp. 65-71.
  38. Sarafi, M. (2003)’ Overview of features in spontaneous settlements in search empowerment strategies, Proceedings of marginalization and informal settlements’ University of Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences publications, Tehran, Iran.
  39. Statistical Center of Iran – SCI. (2006)’ Results of the Population and Housing Census; Tehran Province, Tehran‘ [In Persian].
  40. Turner. J.F.C. (1976)’ Housing by people: towards autonomy in building environments‘ Marion Boyars, London.
  41. UN-Habitat. (2003)’ The Challenge of Slums: Global report on human settlements‘ Earthscan, London.
  42. Van Gelder, J. L. (2009)’ Legal tenure security, perceived tenure security and housing improvement in Buenos Aires: an attempt towards integration‘ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 33: 126–146.
  43. Van Gelder, J.L., F. Ostuni and T. Endres (2005)’ Being in the air: tenure security and housing investment in five informal settlements in Buenos Aires‘ Medio
  44. Van Gelder. J.L. (2007)’ Feeling and thinking: quantifying the relationship between perceived tenure security and housing improvement in an informal neighborhood in Buenos Aires‘ Habitat International 31: 219–231.
  45. Varley, A. (1987)’ The relation between tenure legalization and housing improvements: evidence from Mexico City’ Development and Change 18: 463–481.
  46. Varley, A. (2002)’ Private or public: debating the meaning of tenure legalization‘ International Journal of Urban and Regional Research  26(3): 449–461.
  47. Von. Benda-Beckmann. F. (2003)’ Mysteries of capital or mystification of legal property?’ European Journal of Anthropology 41: 187–191.
  48. World Bank (1993)’ Housing: enabling markets to work‘ World Bank, Washington, DC.
  49. World Bank. (2003)’ Land policies for growth and poverty reduction‘ a World Bank policy research report, Washington, DC.