The Role of Algorithmic Applications in the Development of Architectural Forms (Case Study:Nine High-Rise Buildings)

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Architecture, Faculty Architecture and Urban Planning, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

The process of developing architectural forms has greatly been changed by advances in digital technology, especially in design tools and applications. In recent years, the advent of graphical scripting languages in the design process has profoundly affected 3D modeling. Scripting languages help develop algorithms and geometrical grammar of shapes based on their constituent parameters. This study aimed to discover new concepts through the use of computer tools, especially algorithmic tools, in the form design process. The statistical population included high-rise buildings constructed worldwide in the past two decades. The main research questions include: 1) What are the main features and properties of algorithmic applications in comparison with conventional drawing applications? 2) How do algorithmic applications affect the process of devising an architectural form? In this case study, the quantitative research method was employed along with computer simulation. In addition, desk studies and the Internet references were reviewed to collect data. According to the research results, the use of graphical scripting languages as form design tools can develop a smart and generative geometrical framework. Such a smart geometrical framework can relate geometrical grammar to the mathematical relations of shapes. As a result, the changed geometrical parameters of a shape can be reflected on the other variables of dependent forms to change the primary features and specifications of the form. Moreover, changing the existing parameters can result in morphogenic forms, the development of which complies with specific principles.

Keywords


  1. Asefi, M., Imani, E. (2017)  ‘Analyzing the Effect of Digital Application on Creativity Improvement in Architectural Design Training’, Urban Identity, 11 (32): 79-92.
  2. Bani Masoud, A. (2010) Post Modernization and Architecture (Overview of Intellectual Paradigms in Western Contemporary Architecture (1960-2000). Esfahan: Khak Publications.
  3. Terzidis, K. (2014) Expressive Form, translated by Kaveh Bazrafkan et al., First Edition. Mashhad: Kasra Publications.
  4. Picon, A. (2013) Digital Culture in Architecture, translated by Morteza Khayat Pour Najib, Tehran: Parham Nashr Publications.
  5. Khabbazi, Z. (2013) Algorithmic Architecture Paradigm. Mashhad: Kasra Publications
  6. Khabbazi, Z. (2013) Digital Design Process, Vol. 1, First Edition. Mashhad: Kasra Publications
  7. Gharib Pour, A. (2014) ‘Analytical Comparison between Freehand and Computer Architecture Design Processes’, Fine Arts, 19 (1), 5-14
  8. Golabchi, M. (2001) ‘Criteria for Designing High-Rise Buildings’, Fine Arts, No. 9, 52-62.
  9. Golabchi, M., Andeji Garmaroudi, A., Bastani, H. (2012) Digital Architecture. Tehran: Tehran University Press
  10. Ganji Khabiri, A., Diba D. (2014) ‘Form Compliance with Data: Context-Oriented Architecture in the Digital Era’, Iran’s Scientific Council of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 1 (10) 63-82.
  11. Bani masoud, A. (2011) Western Architecture, Roots and Concepts. Tehran: Honar-e Memarie gharn.
  12. Ching, Francis, D.K. & Juroszek, Steven P. (2010) Design Drawing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2nd Edition, New Jersey.
  13. Colakoglu, M. (2001) Design by Grammar: Algorithmic Design in an Architectural Context. Massachussetes: MIT.
  14. Day, M. (2005) Generative Components. AEC Magazine.
  15. Dibaj, S. M. and Soltanzadeh, H. (1997) Architecture and the Philosophy. Tehran: Daftare. Pazhoheshhaye Farhangi. (In Persian)
  16. Evans, R. (1995) The Projective Cast. Architecture and Its Three Geometries. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
  17. Faruque, O. (1984) Graphic Communication as a Design Tool. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.
  18. Hernandez, C. (2006) Design Procedures: A Computational Framework for Parametric Design and Complex Shapes in Architecture. Massachusette : MIT.
  19. Hemberg E., Gilligan C., O’Neill M., Brabazon A. (2007) A Grammatical Genetic Programming Approach to Modularity in Genetic Algorithms. In: Ebner M., O’Neill M., Ekárt A., Vanneschi L., Esparcia-Alcázar A.I. (eds) Genetic Programming. EuroGP 2007. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 4445. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
  20. Hyeong-ill, K. (2004) Space efficiency in mixed-use high-rise building. Illinois Institute of Technology.
  21. Jabi, W. (2016) Linking design and simulation using non-manifold topology. Architectural Science Review, 59(4), 323-334.
  22. Langsdorf, L. (2016) From Interrelational Ontology to Instrumental Ethics: Expanding Pragmatic Postphenomenology, Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology, 20 (2),112- 128.
  23. Levelle, E. (2017) The Morpheus Hotel: From design to production. Retrieved from. www.rhino3d.com/go/morpheus.
  24. Lockard, William Kirby. (1982) Design Drawing.  New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.
  25. Porter, Tom. (1990) Architectural Drawing. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.
  26. Oxman, R. (2017) Thinking difference: Theories and models of parametric design thinking, Design Study, 52 .pp 4-39.
  27. Picon, A. (2010) Digital culture in architecture: An introduction for the design profession. Bern, Switzerland: Birkhäuser.
  28. Meredith, M. (2008) From control to design: Parametric/algorithmic architecture. Barcelona, Spain: Actar.
  29. Nianquan,  Z. (2001) A computer-based environment for preliminary structural design, design collaboration and design automation of tall buildings. Hong Kong University.
  30. Rosenberger, R., & Verbeek, P. P. C. C. (2015) A field guide to postphenomenology. In R. Rosenberger, & P-P. Verbeek (Eds.), Postphenomenological Investigations: Essays on Human-Technology Relations (pp. 9-41). (Postphenomenology and the Philosophy of Technology). Lexington Books.
  31. Roudavski, S. (2009) Towards morphogenesis in Architecture, International Journal of Architecture Computing, 345-374.
  32. Sang Min Park, Mahjoub Elnimeiri, David C. Sharpe, Robert J. Krawczyk. (2004)Tall Building Form Generation by Parametric Design Process,Tall Buildings in Historical Cities - Culture & Technology for Sustainable Cities confrance, seoul: Architectural Institute of Korea.
  33. Soltanzadeh Hossein.(2009) The Role of Geometric & Numerical Symbols in Iranian Utopia, Journal of  Population Association of Iran,  3(6),67-88.
  34. Soltanzadeh H, Ghaseminia M. (2016) Intertextual Relationships in the Contemporary Aarchitecture of the Iran, During 1961-1977, Space Ontology International Journal, 5(4),39-50.
  35. Stiny, G. (1985). Computing with Form and Meaning in Architecture: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the Association of Collegiate Schools of architecture , Automn  1985, Journal of Architectural Education, 39( 1) pp. 7-19.
  36. Terzidis, K. (2005) Expressive Form A Conceptual Approach to Computational Design. New York: Spon Press.
  37. Woodbury, R. (2010) Elements of Parametric Design. New York: Routledge.
  38. Wortmann, Thomas. & Tuncer, Bige. (2017) Differentiating parametric design: Digital workflows in contemporary architecture and construction, Singapore University of Technology and Design,Design study, 52 .pp 173-197.
  39. Zaero-Polo, A., & Moussavi, F. (2013) Morphogenesis. FOA’s ark. Barcelona, Spain: Actar.