Social Logic of Cities and Urban Tourism Accessibility; Space Syntax Analysis of Kuala Lumpur City Centre

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gilan, Iran.

2 Ph.d Candidate, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Portugal.

3 Department of Architecture, Lahijan branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran.

Abstract

Tourism is a progressively major part of economies of urban areas. Urban regeneration as a subcategory of urban tourism has been the center of many urban projects. This study addresses the role of space syntax theory as an analytical tool and design aided tool in urban regeneration. For this purpose, we examined the development of a square in the Kuala Lumpur City Center (KLCC) using space syntax method. Surrounding streets network one time with existed situation and another time with adding proposed square were analyzed by Depthmap software and were compared. Numerical analysis showed a significant increase of integration of the most number of streets. Based on the connection of integration and other concepts of space syntax in accessibility and people flow the proposed square can be a major contribution to accessibility problems of tourists in KLCC. It can be seen that the synergy of the streets that link Jalan Ampang is increased; moreover, intelligibility and accessibly may well be improved in this area by the suggested square. The behavior of tourists and local people based on wayfinding can be developed by new spatial configurations.

Keywords


  1. Ayeghi, A., & Ujang, N. (2014). The impact of physical features on user attachment to Kuala Lumpur City Centre (KLCC) Park, Malaysia. Geografia. Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 10(3), 44-59.
  2. Bafna, S. (2003). SPACE SYNTAX A brief introduction to its logic and analytical techniques. Environment and Behavior, 35(1), 17-29.
  3. Buchanan, c. (1965). Traffic In Towns: a Study of the Long Term Problems of Traffic in Urban Areas. London: HMSO.
  4. Chesterton. (1997). Pedestrian Market Research Services Ltd. Managing Urban Spaces in Town Centres. London: The Stationery Office.
  5. Conroy-Dalton, R. (2003). The secret is to follow your nose. Route path selection and angularity. Environment and Behavioral, 35(1), 107–131.
  6. Etienne, A. (2003). How does path integration interact with olfaction, vision, and the representation of space? (Jeffery J Ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
  7. Etienne, A., Berlie, J., Georgakopoulos, J., & Maurer, M. (1998). Role of dead reckoning in navigation (Healy S Ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  8. Getz, D. (2008). Event tourism: Definition, evolution, and research. Tourism Management, 29(3), 403-428. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2007.07.017
  9. Getz, D., & Page, S. J. (2015). Progress and prospects for event tourism research. Tourism Management(0). doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2015.03.007
  10.  Gospodini, A. (2001). Urban design, urban space morphology, urban tourism: an emerging new paradigm concerning their relationship. European Planning Studies, 9(7), 925-934.
  11.  Gospodini, A. A. a. L., PH. (1998). Sustainable Tourism Development of Chora of Myconos: Controlling the Abuse of Public Open Space and the Aesthetic Pollution of the EdiŽces. Paper presented at the International congress ‘Sustainable Development on the Islands, Greece.
  12.  Haciomeroglu, M., Laycock, R. G., & Day, A. M. (2007). Distributing Pedestrians in a Virtual Environment. Paper presented at the International Conference on Cyberworlds, Norwich, UK, School of Computing Sciences, University of East Anglia.
  13.  Hanson, J. (1989). Order and structure in urban design: The plans for the rebuilding of London after the Great Fire of 1666. Ekistics, 334/335(Jan/Feb, Mar/Apr), 22–42.
  14.  Hanson, J. (1989). Order and Structure in Urban Space: A Morphological History of the City of London. London: UCL.
  15.  Hill, M. R. (1984). Walking, Crossing Streets, and Choosing Pedestrian Routes: A Survey of Recent Insights from the Social/ Behavioral Science. USA: University of Nebraska Studies.
  16.  Hillier, B. (1989). The architecture of the urban object. Ekistics, 56(334/335), 5–21.
  17.  Hillier, B. (1996). Space is the Machine: A Configurational Theory of Architecture. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
  18.  Hillier, B., & Hanson, J. (1984). The social logic of space: Cambridge university press.
  19.  Hillier, B., & Hanson, J. (1984). The Social Logic of Space, Reprint. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  20.  Hillier, B., & Hanson, J. (1998). Space syntax as a research programme. Urban Morphology, 2(2), 108–110.
  21.  Hillier, B., Hanson, J., Peponis, J., Hudson, J., & Burdett, R. (1983). Space syntax: A different urban perspective. Architectural Journal, 30(November), 47–63.
  22.  Hillier, B., & Penn, A. (1996). Cities as movement economies. Urban Design International, 1(1), 49–60.
  23.  Hillier, B., Penn, A., Hanson, J., Grajewski, T., & Xu, J. (1992). Natural Movement: Configuration and Attraction in Urban Pedestrian Movement. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 19.
  24. Hillier, B., Penn, A., Hanson, J., Grajewski, T., & Xu, J. (1993). Natural movement-or, configuration and attraction in urban pedestrian movement. Environ Plann B, 20(1), 29-66.
  25.  Hillier, B., Penn, A., Hanson, J., Grajewski, T., & Xu, J. (1993). Natural movement: Or configuration and attraction in urban pedestrian movement. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 20, 2029–2066.
  26.  Hillier, B., & Shu, S. (2000). Crime and urban layout: The need for evidence; Key Issues in Crime Prevention and Community Safety (V. MacLaren, S. Ballantyne, & K. Pease Eds.). London: Institute of Public Policy Research.
  27.  Karimi, K. (2012). A configurational approach to analytical urban design: ‘Space syntax’ methodology. Urban Design International, 17(4), 297–318.
  28.  Klarqvist, B. (1993). A space syntax glossary. Nordisk Arkitekturforskning, 2, 11-12.
  29.  KLSP. (2004). Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020.  Retrieved from http://www.dbkl.gov.my/pskl2020/english/vision_and_goals_of_kl/index.htm
  30.  LAW, S., CHIARADIA, A., & SCHWANDER, C. (2012). TOWARDS A MULTI‐MODAL SPACE SYNTAX ANALYSIS. Acase study of the London street and underground network. Paper presented at the Eighth International Space Syntax Symposium, Santiago de Chile.
  31.  Lee, S., Sovrano, V., & Spelke, E. (2012). Navigation as a source of geometric knowledge: Young children’s use of length, angle, distance, and direction in a reorientation task. Cognition, 123(1), 144-161. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2011.12.015
  32.  Lynch, K. (1960). The image of the city. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  33.  Malaysia, T. (2015). Tourist arrivals and receipts to Malaysia.   Retrieved from tourism.gov.my
  34.  Mattson, K. (1999). Reclaiming and remaking public space: Towards an architecture for American democracy. National Civic Renewal, 88(2), 133–144.
  35.  Mohamed Ali, S., & Nawawi, A. H. (2006). Factors that influence users' satisfaction on urban park: comparison between KLCC park and Subang Recreation Park.
  36.  Munan, H. (2002). Malaysia: New York: Benchmark Books.
  37.  Penn, A., Hillier, B., Banister, D., & Xu, J. (1998). Configurational modelling of urban movement networks. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 25(1), 59–84.
  38.  Penn, A., & Turner, A. (2004). Movement-generated land-use agglomeration: simulation experiments on the drivers of fine-scale land-use patterning. Urban Design International, 9(2), 81–96.
  39.  Pugalis, L. (2009). Achieving place quality. URBAN DESIGN, 109, 14–15.
  40.  Safari. H.  (2016a). Regular Geometry Towards Effective Visitors Wayfinding: A Case Study of KLCC Vicinity. Ph.D thesis. UTM
  41.  Safari,H.; FF Moridani,and SS Mahdzar (2016b). Influence of geometry on legibility: An explanatory design study of visitors at the Kuala Lumpur City Center. Frontiers of Architectural Research 5(4), 499–507.
  42.  Safari, H. and FakouriMoridani,  F. (2017). Syntactical analysis of the accessibility and sociability of a square in the Kuala Lumpur City Center; Frontiers of Architectural Research(2017) 6, 456–468
  43.  Tang, C. F., & Tan, E. C. (2013). How stable is the tourism-led growth hypothesis in Malaysia? Evidence from disaggregated tourism markets. Tourism Management, 37, 52-57.
  44.  Tang, C. F., & Tan, E. C. (2015). Does tourism effectively stimulate Malaysia's economic growth? Tourism Management, 46, 158-163.
  45.  Turner, A. (2001). Depthmap: A program to perform visibility graph analysis.
  46.  UNWTO, W. T. O. (2012). The most visited countries in 2012.   Retrieved from http://www2.unwto.org/
  47.  Woolley, H., Rose, S., Carmona, M., & Freeman, J. (2004). The Value of Public Space, How High Quality Parks and Public Spaces Create Economic, Social and Environmental Value. London: CABE Space.