Application of Geographical Location Differences of the Sun- Path Diagram in Climatic Architecture

Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin Branch, Iran

2 M.Arch., Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin Branch, Iran


In this study, by recognizing geographical location changes of the sun-path diagram, we present a selection of sustainable architectural guidelines that influence the climatic element of sunshine. For this purpose, after the introduction of triple zones of the earth in terms of how the sun is exposed(include:Tropical, temperate and polar), the function of the earth's curvature to create geographical location differences in the angles of sunshine in both its altitude and azimuth, is explained. In the following, using the "Rayman" software, the sun-path diagram on the days of the summer and winter solstice (revolutionary) is drawn up for cities selected in the triple zones, and the geographical location differences of these diagrams are described. Also, due to the climaticrequirement in some of the studied cities, the "PET" index has been calculated, and in the other cities, the "Analemma" graph has been used to determine the frontiers of the sunshine and the number of days per each front. The research findings, suggest a deep geographical location difference in the patterns of the sun-path diagram for the Earth's sunshine zones. At the end, a selection of architectural guidelines for the use of passive solar energy is proposed for residential buildings in the above cities. These guidelines are presented in the following topics: Optimal orientation and determine of an appropriate front for lighting the building and estimating the size of the horizontal overhangs for the sun-facing windows.


  1. Alijani, B. & M. R. Kaviani (1992). Fundamentals of climatology,Samt Press, first edition, Tehran.(In Persian).
  2. Arif Kamal. M (2012) An overview of passive cooling techniques in buildings. Design Concepts and Architectural Interventions, Civil Engineering & Architecture, Vol.55,No.1,84-97.
  3. Bainbridge, D. & Haggard, k. (2011). Passive Solar Architecture (Heating, Cooling, Ventilation, Day lighting and More Using Natural Flows), Chelsea Green Publishing.
  4. Fesharaki, P. (1990). Geography,dictionary,  Amir Kabir Press, First edition,Tehran.       (In Persian).
  5. Inanlou, H. (2013). The Impact of Climatic Elements of the north of Qazvin Plain on the Thermal Comfort of  Rural Dwellings, Ph.D., thesis. Tehran Science and Research Branch. (In Persian).
  6. Ismaili, R. ,Gandomkar A. &Montazeri, M. (2010). comfort Climatology zoning of KhorasanRazavi using the physiological equivalent thermometer (PET index).two Climatology Research Quarterly. First Year, Nos. 1 & 2, pp. 101 to 114, Mashhad.  (In Persian).
  7. Kachadorian. J (2006). The Passive Solar House, Chelsea Green Publishing.
  8. Matzarakis A. &Amelung B. (2008).Physiological Equivalent Temperature as Indicator for Impacts of Climate Change on Thermal Comfort of Humans. Springer Science+ Business Media B.V. 161 – 172.
  9. Matzarakis A. and et al. (2006), Modeling Radiation Fluxes in Simple and Complex Environments – Application of the Rayman Model ,Biometeorol  .323 – 334.
  10. Mohammadi, H. (2007), Concepts and terms of the climatology, Tehran University Press, Second Edition, Tehran.  ( In Persian).
  11. Mohammadi, H. (2010), Applied climatology, Tehran University Press, Third Edition, Tehran. (In Persian).
  12. Qiyabakloo, Z. (1393), Setting environmental conditions,Jahad University Press, 9th edition, Tehran.  ( In Persian).
  13. Razjooyan M. (2009). Comfort in the shelter of architecture in harmony with climate, ShahidBeheshti University press, Second Edition, Tehran.  ( In Persian).
  14. Tavoosi,T. (2011). Climate Application of sunshine in Environmental Planning, Sistan and Baloochestan University Press, Marandiz, First Edition, Zahedan, Mashhad.  ( In Persian) .
  15. Watson, D. & Kent L. (2011). Climatic Designing, Translation byVahidGhobadian and Mohammad FayzMahdavi, Thirteenth Edition, Tehran University Press, Tehran.( In Persian).