Lessons from the Past: Climatic Response of Iranian Vernacular houses to Hot Climate Conditions

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Associate Professor of Urban Design and planning, Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 M.Arch., Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

While in the historic urban fabric of Iran's cities, there are numerous traditional buildings that have stood up for more than one hundred years, today's buildings, in spite of advanced construction technologies, are not comparable with those traditional ones in terms of resiliency and durability. The sustainable vernacular strategies in design and construction of these traditional houses are the main reasons of their durability. This study discussed and analyzed the vernacular approach and climatic design of traditional Qajarian.houses, which survived for at least one hundred years in Iran. Building orientation according to the sun, construction materials, compatibility with water sources and wind power, and finally structural organization are five parameters which have been analyzed in two buildings in the hot climatic region of Iran. Data collection relies on library research and empirical case study. This research shows the analyzed buildings’ design and construction are the response to their climatic situation and are compatible with their contexts.While these buildings are located in two cities with some climatic differences -especially humidity-, their vernacular design strategies have some similarities. However, their differences due to their distinct climatic conditions are undeniable. Finally, the research displays that these buildings put into service climatic opportunities, which are the aftereffect of centuries of optimization of building orientation, material use and construction capabilities with less environmental impact.

Keywords


  1. Bodach,s. Lang, W. Hamhaber, J. (2014), Climate responsive building design strategies of vernacular architecture in Nepal, Energy and Buildings, vol 81, P. 227-242
  2. Feizollahbeigi, A. (2009), Understanding the historical context of Kashan, Building’s restoration lesson’s Album, Under supervision of M.RezazadehArdebili and S.Izadi (In persian)
  3. Ghazbanpour, J.(1993), New life-Old structure, Selection of buildings with historical value, Department of Housing and Urban Development
  4. Ghobadian, V. (2004), Climatic analysis of the traditional Iranian buildings, Fourth edition, Tehran University publication, Tehran. (Inpersian)
  5. Gorji Mahlabani, Y. Yaran, A.Parvarinezhad, S.Eskandari, M. (2011), Evaluation houses in harmony with the climate houses Kashan, Armanshahr Journal 7, P 31-40. (In persian)
  6. Haji ghasemi, K. (1996), Ganjnameh: Cyclopaedia of Iranian Islamic Architecture, No.1: Mansions of Kashan, Municipal Cultural Spaces Development Company, Tehran. (In persian)
  7. Heidari, Sh. Ghafari Jabari, Sh. (2010), Thermal comfort zone in cold and dry climate in Iran, Fine Art journal, Architecture and Urban design 44, P 37-42. (In persian)
  8. Kasmai, M. (2013), Climate and architecture, Edited by Ahmadinezhad, M. Second edition, NashreKhak publication, Tehran. (In persian)
  9. Mahmoud Kelaieh, S. (2008), Repair and restoration plan of Fallahty house in Kashan (Pottery Museum), Master's thesis in repair and restoration of historical buildings, Under supervision of D.Daneshian, Higher Education Center for Cultural Heritage. (In persian)
  10. Masoudian, S.A, (2003), Iran's climatic zones,   Journal of Geography and Devel-opment, Zahedan, pp. 171, 184. (In persian)
  11.    Mirzaee, Maleki, Mohtasebi, (2011), Doraghi House, Building’s restoration lesson’s Album, Under supervision of M.Rezazadeh Ardebili. (In persian)
  12. National Standard No. 14254, Non-residential buildings, Benchmarking energy consumption and energy label instructions, ISIRI, First publication. (In persian)
  13. Nikghadam, N. (2013), Semi-open space patterns of traditional houses in Dezful, Boushehr and Lenge in relation to regional climate, Fine Art journal, Architecture and Urban design 18, P 69-80. (In persian)
  14. Peel, M.C, Finlayson, B. L, Mcmahon, T. A. (2007). Updated world map of the Koppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, European Geosciences Union, 11 (5), pp.1633-1644.
  15. Pirnia, M. (2005), Introduction to Islamic architecture of Iran, Codification by Gh. Memarian, SoroushDanesh Publication, Tehran
  16. Rezaii, M. Hamidimonazam, M. (2015), The Role of Climatic Reactions in Forming Traditional Cities in Iran’s Arid and Dry Regions, Journal of Social Issues & Humanities, Volume 3, Issue 7. (In persian)
  17. Rezazdeh Ardebili, M. (1996), The definition and interpretation neighborhoods, New housing typology in the historical part of Ardabil and perceived experiences "of housing construction in the future", Conference of housing in the second plan of Development and Vision in Ardabil https://earth.google.com (In persian)
  18. Students’ final Album of Building’s restoration lesson, Master level, (2009), Under supervision of M.RezazadehArdebili, University of Tehran
  19. Pope, A. (2016). Albert Pope, "Carbon Sixty-Five". Harvard Graduate School of Design (GSD) Talks, Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=clpTED0ilds
  20. Tahbaz, M. (2013), Climatic Knowledge, Climatic Design, ShahidBeheshti University publication center, Tehran. (In persian)
  21. Tahbaz, M. Jalilian, Sh. (2008), The principles of architectural design in harmony with climate with approach to the architecture of the mosque in Iran, ShahidBeheshti University publication center, Tehran. (In persian)
  22. Taleghani,M. ToluBehbood,K. Heidar,Sh. (2010), Energy Efficient Architectural Design Strategies in Hot‐Dry Area of Iran: Kashan,  Emirates Journal for Engineering Research, 15 (2), 85-91. (In persian)
  23. Tavassoli, M. (1981), Urban structure and architecture in the hot arid zone of Iran, Roshdieh publication, Fourth edition. (In persian)
  24. United Nations (UN), (1971), Climate and house design, New York, United Nations.
  25. (WBCSD), World Business Council for Sustainable Development, (2009), Energy Efficiency in Buildings Transforming the Market, WBCSD, Geneva
  26. http://www.wikimapia.org, Visited at Jan 2015
  27. http://www.irimo.ir, Visited at Jan 2015