A Trivalent Approach to the Quality of the “Khoshk” River Landscape in Shiraz


1 Assistant Professor, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

3 MSc in Urban and Regional Planning, School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran


By considering certain factors like those mentioned by Ian Thompson (2005) in his definition of landscape, i.e. ecology, community and delight, in designing landscapes, one can find the vocation more applicable and useful. City rivers can play a very important role with regard to such values. In fact, the presence of nature and wildlife could not only be the lifeline of a city, but also a factor for community activities. Environmental quality improvement case study (aesthetically) among today’s building constructions is the result of approaching landscape from such a perspective. In the present paper, a river in Shiraz called the ‘Khoshk River’–the river that keeps people safe during the rainy seasons by providing a passage for the excess water–is studied based on the factors of designing landscapes. In this regard, the ecological effect of the river as a natural corridor in a warm and dry climate is obvious; however, the two other effects of community and delight are ignored in relation to the landscape of this natural axis. Thus, apart from considering its ecological role, bringing the spirit of society and delight back into the seasonal lifeline is one of the purposes of this study. The river was a recreation area for the people in the past. However, it is now surrounded by different residential, commercial, and administrative buildings, and the society factor (with minimum attention to its ecological and landscape values) is active outside this natural axis. In attention towards the river’s landscape, using the river to resolve traffic problems (building overpasses and underpasses), and a subway nearby, have created an undesirable image of this natural phenomenon.



1)       Eckbo, G.. 1998. Landscape for Living. Harvard Design Magazine. No. 6.

2)       Hackett, B., 1971. Landscape Planning: an Introduction to Theory and Practice, Oriel Press, Newcastle upon Tyne.

3)       Hough, M., 1990. Out of Place: Restoring Identity to the Regional Landscape, New Haven: Yale University Press.

4)       Hwang, K., 2003. Restoring Cheonggyecheon River in the Downtown Seoul, Seoul Development Institute.

5)       Kaplan, R., Kaplan S. and Brown, T., 1989.  Environmental Preference: A Comparison of Four Domains of Predictors, Environment and Behavior, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 509-530.

6)       Leopold, A., 1981. A sand county almanac. Oxford university press, New York.

7)       McHarg, I., 1992. Design with Nature. Falcon press, Philadelphia.

8)       Poormokhtar, M., 2001. The effect of Khoshkriver in Shiraz sustainable development. M.Sc. thesis, Shiraz University (in Persian).

9)       Pye, D., 1987. The Nature and Aesthetics of Design, The Herbert Press, and London (first published as The Nature of Design in 1964 by Studio Vista, London).

10)   Roshani, A., 1995. General ecology. Imam hossein publication, Tehran, Iran (in Persian).

11)   Spirn, A., 1998. The Language of Landscape, Yale University Press, New Haven.

12)   Thompson, I., 2000. Ecology, Community and Delight: An Inquiry into Values in Landscape Architecture, Routledge Press.

13)   Thompson, I., 2005. Ecology, Community and Delight: Sources of values in landscape architecture, Landscape Research, Published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library.

14)   Treib, M., 1993. Axioms for a Modern Landscape Architecture, pp 33–67, In: Treib M., ed., Modern Landscape Architecture: A Critical Review, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

15)   Tunnard, C., 1948. Gardens in the Modern Landscape (revised 2nd edition), Architectural Press, London, and Scribner, New York.

16)   Turner, T., 1996. City as landscape, Spon press. Greenwich.

17)   Wu, J., 2007. Key Topics in Landscape Ecology, Arizona State University, Cambridge University press.



  1. www.citymayors.com/development/seoul_development.html (December 2007).