1Associate Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2Ph.D student of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran
According to research, between 15 to 20 percent of the total energy consumption of every country is used for residential spaces. This amount is explanatory of the high cost and will follow the destruction of natural resources and environmental demolition. The aim of this research is to recognize earth thermal ability and its usage in public buildings and especially in private buildings in order to reduce energy consumption which can lead to huge savings in natural resources. It is intended to pay attention to the role of cellars as underground spaces in reducing energy consumption in residential spaces in this research. Cellars which are one of the climatic elements were very useful in residential spaces in the past and underground spaces in cities and public spaces are using in the contemporary era. Native Iranian architecture has exclusive features in residential spaces. One of the reducing energy consumption techniques is using ground depth and underground spaces in private and public buildings. Pit gardens, Shovadan, aqueducts, lavers, cellars with natural abilities in coldness, warmness and support are examples of underground space uses (providing cooling, heating and storing food and goods) in Iranian cities. The Main questions of this research are: what the role of undergrounds or cellars was in native Iranian architecture and how impressionable it was in reducing energy consumption. The theoretical framework of this study indicates that several factors had positive impacts on reducing energy consumption in cellars. To do this research, descriptive-analytical methods were uses and were analyzed according to case studies in Qazvin houses. The results of this study reveal that cellars had a main role in human thermal comfort and they caused reducing energy consumption in residential and even public spaces. Also, several factors such as the cellar's depth, height and dimensions had impacts on the reduction amount of energy consumption and the level of their impact was different.
1) Anselm, A. J., 2008. Passive annual heat storage principles in earth sheltered housing, a supplementary energy saving system in residential housing, Energy and Buildings, no. 40, pp.1214-1219, Elsevier.
2) B. Barker, M., 1986. Using the Earth to Save Energy: Four Underground Buildings, Tunneling and Underground Space Technology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 59-65.
3) Carmody, J., Sterling, R., 1993. Underground Space Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
4) Cultural heritage organization of Qazvin
5) Ghobadian, V., 1998. Climatic analysis of the Traditional Iranian buildings, institute of Tehran University publication and printing (in Persian).
7) Kasmaie, M., 1992. Climatic classification of Iran for housing and residential environments, housing and building research center, Tehran, first edition (in Persian).
8) Koch-Nielsen, H., 2011. A design guide for the built environment in hot climates, Soflaii, F., architectural and urbanism informational and research center, Tehran, First edition.
9) Mohammadzadeh, M., 2006. The memorable memorial, Yadegar-e-mandegar, historical building maps of Qazvin, Qazvin cultural heritage and tourism publication of general administration, first edition (in Persian).
10) Molaei, A., 2011. Human oriented urban design with approach to the development of urban undersurfaces, case study center of Tajrish in Tehran, Thesis of master academy, Iran university of science and technology, Tehran (in Persian).
11) Shanghai, I., 2012. Architecture of low energy consumption, Phoenix Publishing, Hong Kong.
12) Zandiyeh, M., Parvardinezhad, S., 2011. Consistent development and it's terms in Iran residential architecture, Housing and Environment of Village, no. 130 (in Persian).